FYROM’s revisionist falsifications – Rejected by the World’s academia
This part of the thread will track the history of Fyrom’s revisionism as well as examining the flaws in the historical revisionism itself, relating to the following periods: Modern, Medival and Ancient. Historical revisionism is defined as the re-interpretation historical events and distortion of historical truth to further a vested interest. The first origins of the revisionism will be examined, leading up to the Yugoslav communist take over and the intensification of such revisionism which occured as a result.
The reaction of the world’s academia to Skopjian (and Yugoslav) Macedonist revisionism will also be covered in this article. For instance in 1969, the “History of the Macedonian nation” was published by Yugoslav state authors. Encountering much international dissaproval, the book gave any reference in the world’s archives to Macedonia and to historical figures and historical events connected in any way with Macedonia over the millennia, was manipulated and forcibly given a “ethnic Macedonian (Slavic) identity”.
The letter of French Byzantist historian Rene Guerden to the Yugoslav state authors of the book, from 1969, can be seen as an example of the world academia reaction when the revisionism was first put to the world:
The magazine HISTORIA has just provided me with the very beautiful book that you so kindly sent me. I have first of all admired the presentation and then was struck by its contents.
Your thesis is brilliant. The Macedonians are and have always been Greeks, and the creation of a “Socialist Republic of Macedonia” with Skopje as capital is only a sad farce. I will not miss, when the opportunity arises, to pass this on.
In thanking you for having so kindly sent me your book, which has interested me even more, having myself written many works on Byzantium, I beg you to believe, dear Sir, by best feelings.
The history of Skopjian revisionist falsifications
Skopjian historical revisionism has its very first origins together with the first emergence of Macedonism in the mid 19th century. Those Slav Macedonists, the very first to advocate the idea of an independent/ autonomous ‘Macedonian’ state and a ‘Macedonian’ consciousness and language seperate of the Bulgarian consciousness dominant amongst the Slavic population of Vardar and Macedonia. Historical revisionism on the part of the Macedonists, first began to construct their ideology by appealing to the Slavonic peasant folk with these such claims:
-Saint Cyril and Methodius were claimed to have been ‘Macedonian’ monks who civillised other Slavs including Bulgarians. This can be seen as a concerted political promotion of seperatism from the dominant Bulgarian consciousness of the Slavs of the region.
-For the same ideological purpose as above they claimed that the Macedonian Slavs were pure Slavs while the Bulgarians were Tatars as well as Slavs:
“Certain Macedonists distinguish themselves from Bulgarians for other reasons as well, mainly that they are pure Slavs and that the Bulgarian are Tartars” [Makedonja newspaper, January 18, 1871]
-The Macedonists also began to write about Alexander the Great, as an important historical figure of Macedonia, however also implying an ethnic ‘Slavic Macedonian’ identity for Alexander in their writings:
The unsigned author of the editorial of the journal A vt onomna Makedoni 1903, states:
“When they say to us that we should protect the oppressed Macedonians, we should gladly do so. We are here delighted to recall that Alexander the Great, that tsar of the universe, bore witness to the virtues of the Slavic tribe when he said that the Slavs had heroic hearts and hence deserved to bear the great name Slavs, that is slavni [glorious]. Before his death this man who has endowed us so greatly said that he cursed anyone who would ever speak ill of the Slavs. In recognition of their military abilities he bequeathed to them all the lands from the Adriatic to the ocean of eternal ice. Besides, he besought his heavenly patrons to protect them from ill fortune and always aid the twelve princes, descendants of his twelve friends. Now, if the Macedonians are in a situation to stop their extermination with their own hands and improve their destiny, then the Bulgarians, Serbs, Montenegrins and other Slavs are bound to help their brothers in blood and faith, those who are born of ‘majka doina’ [nursing mother] (Macedonia), from where, too, the most famous principles and luminaries have originated.”
For much of the time before in the latter 19th century and ealry 20th, the Macedonists continued to construct their ideology using historical fabrications as the basis of constructing a seperate and distinct ‘Macedonian identity’. They did this mainly by promoting the idea of a independent ‘Macedonian’ history and identity, entirely seperate of the existing Bulgarian ethnos amongst the majority of the Vardar and Macedonian Slavs.
1944 – The Yugoslav Communist Party’s contribution to revisionism
By the end of German occupation the communist partisans, under the leadership of Josip Tito, emerged as the most powerful force in Yugoslavia. One of the first actions of Tito was to declare the old Yugoslav province of Vardaska Banovina the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, adopting and exploiting the Macedonist ideology as had been the resolution of the Balkan Communist parties to do so for some time. The concoction of a ‘Macedonian’ government in Skopje, subordinate to Belgrade turned the Macedonist plight on its head. The CPY (Communist Party of Yugoslavia) set up various committees whose task was to codify a ‘Macedonian’ identity for the socialist republic and Yugoslav state historians were set about the task of continuing the revisionism of the early Macedonists, and indeed, taking the revisionist contruction of a Macedonian identity to new hights. (more on the CPY’s creation of the socialist republic)
Yugoslav publication; ‘HISTORY’ on ‘Macedonian’ history
In 1969, the “History of the Macedonian nation” was published by Yugoslav state authors. The book was distributed by the state to the world’s academia, meaning the full scale revisionism was exposed to the world for the first time. Encountering much international dissaproval (See Guerdan’s letter above), the book gave any reference in the world’s archives to Macedonia and to historical figures and historical events connected in any way with Macedonia over the millennia, was manipulated and forcibly given a “ethnic Macedonian” (Slavic) identity. The book dealth with ancient, medival and modern history; for each period making a number of unarguable claims, claims appropriating the parts of history belonging to all the actual ethnicities of the region, Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, Albanians etc. Such would be expected in a book attempting to cater for historical figures, events all linked to a Slavic “Macedonian” ethnicity over thousands of years.
As mentioned earlier in 1969 the Yugoslav book ‘ISTORIJA’ was published. The book forcibly gave any historical event/person “Macedonian” (Slavic) identity. Because of this not only did they seek to appropriate the history of Ancient and medival Greek history of Macedonia but also medival Bulgarians, Serbs and Albanians. Here we will focus on the medival Bulgarian king, Tsar Samuil, who was one of many figures in the history of the region who the Yugoslavs chose to claim in Istorija as ‘Macedonian’.
Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria (c. 958 – October 6, 1014), also sometimes referred as Samuel or Samoil, ascended the Bulgarian thrown in 997. general, Samuil won some victories over the Byzantines by taking advantage of the stretched Byzantine armies of Emperor Basil II, who were fighting simultaneous campaigns in the East against the Arabs. In 986, Samuil drove Basil II’s army from the field at Trayanovi Vrata and incorporated much Byzantine territory in his empire including all of Macedonia, Vardar, extending all the way into central Greece. In 996 Basil defeated Samuel on the Spercheios River and reconquered Greece and in 1002 he overran Macedonia. Samuel recovered, however, reconquered Macedonia, and sacked Adrianople (1003). In 1007 Basil subdued Macedonia again and after years of indecisive conflict annihilated the Bulgarian army at Belasitsa (1014). It was the decisive defeat of Samuil at Belasitsa which earnt Basil the name ‘Boulgaroktonos’ or ‘Basil the Bulgar Slayer’ and ended Samuil’s short lived empire.
Ironically even Samuil, whose very name was synonymous with the word ‘Bulgarian’, the ‘historians’ of Yugoslavia and of modern F.Y.R.O.M as well claim that Samuil was a ‘Macedonian’ king and even claim that the state of Samuil was the first “Macedonian” state.
Primary and secondary sources concerning the Bulgarian ethnicity of Samuil and his 11th century state:
As was mentioned prior, Because of his crushing victory over Samuil, Basil II was given the title, Basil the Bulgar slayer. If it was true that Samuel was a “Macedonian king” then the Byzantinian emperor would not be named as Bulgarocton (=killer of the Bulgarians) but as Macedonocton! The Byzantines themselves, as anyone else did, regarded Samuel and his state as Bulgarian, and that is the reason why they named the new Thema they founded in his state’s lands as ‘Boulgaria’.
This medival Byzantine fresco, depicting the defeat of Samuil in 1014, shows the word ‘Boulgaroi’ (‘Bulgarians’) over the heads of Tsar Samuil and his army:
The Bitola inscription is an inscription made by order of Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Vladislav in 1015 or 1016 in connection with the fortification of the Bitola fortress. The inscription was found in 1956 in Bitola, F.Y.R.O.M and is stored at the Bitola Historical Museum:
Text of the inscription (translation from Old Bulgarian):
“In year 6253 (1015) since the creation of the world, this fortress, built and made by Ivan, Tsar of Bulgaria, was renewed with the help and the prayers of Our Most Holy Lady and through the intercession of her twelve supreme apostles. The fortress was built as a haven and for the salvation of the lives of the Bulgarians. The work on the fortress of Bitola commenced on the twentieth day of October and ended on the… This Tsar was Bulgarian by birth, grandson of the pious Nikola and Ripsimia, son of Aaron, who was brother of Samuil, Tsar of Bulgaria, the two who routed the Greek army of Emperor Basil at Stipone where gold was taken… and this… Tsar was defeated by Emperor Basil in 6522 (1014) since the creation of the world in Klyutch (the Battle of Kleidion) and died at the end of the summer.”
1911 edition of Encyclopedia Brittanica:
“The power of Bulgaria was restored by the Tsar Samuel, in whom Basil found a worthy foe. The emperors first efforts against him were unsuccessful (98I),and the war was not resumed till 996, Samuel in the meantime extending his rule along the Adriatic coast and imposing his lordship on Servia. Eastern Bulgaria was finally recovered in boo; but the war continued with varying successes till 1014, when the Bulgarian army suffered an overwhelming defeat.”
“Samuel of Bulgaria 976–1014. Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria. He built up another great Bulgarian Empire, with its capital at Ochrid, extending from the Adriatic to the Black Sea and from the Danube to Central Greece. In 981 he defeated Basil near Sofia”…
“The great Bulgarian campaigns of Basil II. The great Bulgarian campaigns. In 996 Basil defeated Samuel on the Spercheios River and reconquered Greece. In 1002 he overran Macedonia. Samuel recovered, however, reconquered Macedonia, and sacked Adrianople (1003). In 1007 Basil subdued Macedonia again and after years of indecisive conflict annihilated the Bulgarian army at Belasitsa (1014). He sent several thousand blinded soldiers back to Samuel, who died of the shock. The Bulgarians finally submitted (1018), but were left an autocephalous church at Ochrid. Many of the Bulgarian noble families settled in Constantinople and merged with the Greek and Armenian aristocracy”…
Encarta, History of Bulgaria
“The Russians were compelled to withdraw from Bulgaria in 972, and the eastern part of the country was annexed to the Byzantine Empire. Samuel, the son of a Bulgarian provincial governor, became ruler of western Bulgaria in 976. Samuel’s armies were annihilated in 1014 by the Byzantine Emperor Basil II, who incorporated the short-lived state into his empire in 1018″…
“Basil II. c.958–1025, Byzantine emperor (976–1025), surnamed Bulgaroktonos [Bulgar slayer]”.
“Basil II. Known as Basil Bulgaroctonus (Greek for “Slayer of the Bulgars”) became one of the strongest Byzantine emperors, winning territory in the Balkans, Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Georgia. He was noted for his victory (1014) in the war with Bulgaria, which ended with his blinding all the soldiers in the defeated Bulgarian army.”
Other miscellaneous examples of Historical revisionism by Yugoslav and Skopjian “historians”:
-In 1986 Skopje deceived the Vatican by gaining permission to hold, at the Vatican, an exhibition of “Macedonian” icons -which were in fact Greek Byzantine icons. Later a Vatican spokesman stated that they had been “tricked by Skopje”
-In June 1989 Skopje deceived the Russians by putting on an exhibition in Moscow of fourth to sixth century “Macedonian” terracottas. The inscriptions were all in Greek.
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