The Ethnic and Historical origins of FYROM Part V

 

The VMRO (IMARO) and the Illiden-Krushevo-Preobrazhenie Uprising

The revisionist attempts by F.Y.R.O.M’s revisionist historians to portray the Bulgarian revolutionaries of the VMRO as ‘early fathers of Macedonia’ and exclusively as ‘Macedonian nationalists’ are indicative of both the ethnic Bulgarian origins of the Slavs of F.Y.R.O.M and the inherent flaws of the ‘Macedonist’ historical revisionism. This article will provide multiple primary and secondary sources describing the VMRO as “Bulgarian Komitadjis (committees)” as well as the Bulgarian conscience of all the Committee’s founders and leaders, Hristo Tatarchev, Dame Gruev, Petar Pop-Arsov, Andon Dimitrov, Hristo Batandzhiev, Jane Sandanski and Ivan Hadzhinikolov. The Bulgarian conscience of its most famous leader, Goce Delchev (despite portrayals of Delchev by revisionists as the ‘father of Macedonian nationalism’) will also be seen.

The IMARO was Bulgarian since its establishment, one of the cheif motivations for its founding by Dame Gruev in 1893 was to block the spread of Serbian influence into Macedonia, less it hinder the ultimate unification of the Bulgarian people. Even earlier (1891), Gyorche Petrov, later a famous IMRO committee member, was so concerned by the obvious Serbian schemes that he spent his time exclusively on ethnographic research in Skopje to ensure the availability of indisputable evidence to support the “Bulgarian” character of the Macedonian population. However later on, the Committees experienced internal struggles between the pro-Bulgarians and the autonomists/ Macedonists who were in the minority. The autonomists’ political outlook came in varying forms and degrees. While hardline Bulgarians favoured the complete Bulgarian annexation of Macedonia; certain sections favoured initial Macedonian autonomy uniting the different ethnicities in the region, with the hidden eventual aim of annexation by Bulgaria just as Bulgaria had annexed the autonomous Eastern Rumelia in 1885. There was also a minority of Macedonists who were clearly in favour of Macedonian autonomy and not annexation by Bulgaria.

The climax and fall of the “Internal Committe’s” activity occured August 1903 when the IMARO organised an uprising in two parts of Ottoman territory. The main rising was in the Ilinden region North of Skopje on the 2nd of August where rebels proclaimed the short-lived ‘Krushevo Republic’ in the Bitola Vilayet. The Ilinden uprising was a Bulgarian uprising taking place under the Bulgarian flag, and was reported as such by the Western press, with hundreds of Bulgarian flags lining the streets. The Komitadjis however were successful in inlisting the support of the local Vlach population; claiming their aim was to establish an autonomous and multi-ethnic Macedonia. The second uprising was centered in Tsarevo in the Adrianople Vilayet near the Black Sea coast on the 19th of August, the day of the Transfiguration or Preobrazhenie in Bulgarian. Both uprisings were put down by the Turks without difficulty and despite the Bulgarians’ claims that the rising was in the name of all disgruntled Ottoman subjects, many Greeks and Vlachs were murdered by the Committee in the process.

The failure of the 1903 insurrection resulted in the dispersal of the autonomy seeking, left-wing faction of IMRO and it becoming largely an agent of Bulgarian expansionism. in the years from 1904 to 1908, armed groups sponsored by all three neighboring states fought the Ottomans and each other, and the Ottomans took reprisals. The resulting brutality of the Young Turk government which took power in 1908 played a large part in provoking the Balkan Wars which broke out in 1912. After the Balkan wars and the defeat of Bulgaria, the VMRO mostly died out in Greek Macedonia and Yugoslavia, continuing as a radical right wing part in Bulgaria.

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-From the Statute of the ‘Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committee’, founded in 1893, as it was originally known before being simply referred to as SMARO/ IMARO, ‘Secret/ Internal Macedonian-Adrianople revolutionary Committee':

Quote:


Chapter I. – Goals:
Art. 1. The goal of BMARC is to secure full political autonomy for the Macedonia and Adrianople regions
Art. 2. To achieve this goal they [the committees] shall raise the awareness of self-defense in the Bulgarian population in the regions mentioned in Art. 1., disseminate revolutionary ideas – printed or verbal, and prepare and carry on a general uprising

No doubt the reason for the change in name of the Committee was to not allow the Greeks and Serbs label it as a Bulgarian organisation. The advantages of not openly being a Bulgarian apparatus for annexation and instead to aim for autonomy with the slogan “Macedonia for the Macedonians”, Greeks, Serbs, Vlachs and even Turks inclusive. Later statutes in 1902 for example deleted the goals mentioning the “self defence” of the Bulgarian population instead their goal being:

“uniting all the disgruntled elements in Macedonia and the Adrianople region, regardless of their nationality, to win, through a revolution, a full political autonomy for these two regions.” (1902 Statute of the Secret Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization)

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Quote:

We talked a long time about the goal of this organization and at last we fixed it on autonomy of Macedonia with the priority of the Bulgarian element. We couldn’t accept the position for “direct joining to Bulgaria” because we saw that it would meet big difficulties by reason of confrontation of the Great powers and the aspirations of the neighbouring small countries and Turkey. It passed through our thoughts that one autonomous Macedonia could easier unite with Bulgaria subsequently and if the worst comes to the worst, that it could play a role as a unificating link of a federation of Balkan people. The region of Adrianople, as far as I remember, didn’t take part in our program, and I think the idea to add it to the autonomous Macedonia came later.

-Dr. Hristo Tatarchev, one of the founders of the BMARO/ IMARO

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Various sources following will identify the Bulgarian character of the group and illustrate that, to foreign observers at least, there was no means by which, or historical precedent, to distinguish Macedonists and their ideas for the seperation of an ‘ethnic Macedonian’ consciousness from the Bulgarian consciousness of the Slavic population of the region.

Primary, contemporary, foreign sources concerning the Bulgarian ethnicity of Goce Delchev:

The following is a letter from Goce Delchev to Nikola Maleshevski, in which refers to himself as Bulgarian:

Quote:

“Sofia, 01.05.1899,

Kolyo (Nikola),

..I have received all letters which were sent by or through you. May the dissents and cleavages not frighten you. It is really a pity, but what can we possibly do when we ourselves are Bulgarians and all suffer from the same disease! If this disease had not existed in our forefathers who passed it on to us, we wouldn’t have fallen under the ugly sceptre of the Turkish sultans…”

Original letter of Goce Delchev:

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The following is an Ottoman Turkish document, following the Illinden Uprising, describing the death of Goce Delchev, a ‘Bulgarian leader':

Extracts from the document once again confirming Delchev as a Bulgarian:

Quote:

Appendix No 16. A photocopy by the telegram of Salonik valiya (chief of Vilaet) Hasan Fahmi from May, 5, 1903. The telegram contains the phrase:

“The cheta of the one of the famous leaders Delchev, is composed by twenty one rebels, but shamelesses from the Bulgarian population joined to the cheta and they together counted almost from seventy to eighty persons. They were encircled by the Ottoman army in the village of Banitsa which is outlying two and half hours from Seres”.

Appendix No 17. A photocopy by the telegram of the Myutisarif of Seres from May, 9, 1903. The document has the words:

“I am informing you that the killed famous rebel Delchev wanted to pick on revolt the whole village population and that from the declaration of the captive hurt rebel Georgi we knew about existence of weapons in every village. The authorities know, according to the last information, that the Bulgarians from the village of Rondi near Seres are rebels and they help to the chetas of the Committee”.

Appendix No 18. A photocopy by the telegram, written to the Turkish Embassy in Bulgaria, May, 9, 1903. It contains the phrase:

„On April, 22 (May, 5), in the village of Banitsa one of the leaders of the Bulgarian Committees, with name Delchev, was killed“.

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Greek newspaper, Empros, May 1903. Caption of picture reads: “Gotse Delchev, assassinated leader of the Bulgarian bands”

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Bulgarian conscience of Dame Gruev, IMARO founder:

Quote:

” Considering the critical and terrible situation that the Bulgarian population of the Bitola Vilayet found itself in and following the ravages and cruelties done by the Turkish troops and irregulars, … considering the fact that everything Bulgarian runs the risk of perishing and disappearing without a trace because of violence, hunger, and the upcoming misery, the Head Quarters finds it to be its obligation to draw the attention of the respected Bulgarian government to the pernicious consequences vis-a-vis the Bulgarian nation, in case the latter does not fulfill its duty towards its brethren of race here in an imposing fashion which is necessary by virtue of the present ordeal for the common Bulgarian Fatherland

…Being in command of our people’s movement, we appeal to you on behalf of the enslaved Bulgarian to help him in the most effective way – by waging war.We believe that the response of the people in free Bulgaria will be the same.

No bulgarian school is opened, neither will it be opened… Nobody thinks of education when he is outlawed by the state because he bears the name Bulgar…

Waiting for your patriotic intervention, we are pleased to inform you that we have in our disposition the armed forces we have spared by now…”

-Memoranum from Dame Gruev, Boris Sarafov and Atanas Lotanchev to the Bulgarian consul in Bitola and transmitted from there to Sofia with report N441, September 17th, 1903

-Link to original Dame Gruev memorandum

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Primary, contemporary, foreign sources concerning the Illinden-Krushevo Uprisings:

The ‘Orhid banner’ shows the banner used by the insurgents of the Krushevo-Illinden uprisings. As can be seen the Bulgarian flag being held by a figure representing the uprising. On one side the word ‘Makedonija’ (Macedonia) is written in cyrillic describing Bulgarian aspirations in Macedonia with the Turkish flag at the bottom representing the uprising against the Turks:

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In any country’s archives, and in the reports of the four Consuls and vice-consuls (British, French, Austrian and USA) in Monastir (now Bitola) and Thessaloniki in 1903, the VMRO’s activities are described as a revolt by Bulgarian Komitadjis. The following are articles from August 1903 from the London times, clearly describing the uprisings as Bulgarian and the VMRO as Bulgarian Komijitads:

More London Times articles on the Ilinden Uprising (Click for higher picture resolution):

The Situation in Macedonia, Aug 03, 1903

The Bulgarian Bands In Macedonia, Aug 04, 1903

The Renewed Outbreak In Macedonia, Aug 07, 1903

The Rising In Macedonia. A Russian Consul Murdered. Aug 10, 1903

Balkan Crisis Aug 11, 1903

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Further foreign evaluation from diplomatic sources referring to the VMRO, Ilinden and Krushevo as Bulgarian:

Ottoman diplomatic document:

NOTAM by the Imperial Ottoman Embassy in Paris to the French Foreign Office

Paris, August 10, 1903
Source: French Foreign Office Archives, AMAE/NS Turquie-Macedoine, vol 35,
p. 230r

The Bulgarians gathered in large numbers at Kleisoura and its suburbs have occupied the villages of Djivarek in the Kesrie administrative region, have assasinated all the Muslim inhabitants, women and children, and burnt down their houses. They are currently fiercely attacking the remaining villages in the area, were they already captured a big number of inhabitants. Some of these poor people have been burnt alive. The greek and the muslim poulations are terrified after this terrible slaugtering.

In the suburbs of Monastir, Bulgarian bandits have burnt 8 barns, in 8 different farms, with all the cereals that had been stored there. These violent attacks, during which the muslim villages in the Resna and Persie regions have been attacked, have terrified the Muslims. In the Ochrida region the postman from Janina has been encyrcled by the Bulgarian bandits and a big number of items belonging to Muslims have been burnt by Bulgarian crooks.

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French diplomatic document:

The French vice-consul N.Vernazza reporting to T.Delcasse.

French Foreign Office Archives, AMAE/NS Turquie-Macedoine, vol 35,
p. 193-195, prot.n. 35

Thessaloniki August 6, 1903

News coming from Monastiri and areas between this town and Thessaloniki are always very alarming. Every night the Bulgarian rebels are trying to destroy (with dynamite) the railway. The government telegraph lines remain cut, and only those of the railroad have been repaired and it is so that the authorities communicate with Monastiri.

According to my information, all Bulgarian residents, men, women and children, from the villages of Tzerovo, Banitza, Rossen, Zaboritzeni, between Florina and Ekchi-Sou, have found refuge to the mountains. Two farms belonging to an Albanophone Greek and a Muslim have been burnt down in this area. An employee of the bulgarian commercial agency told me yesterday that up to date the Bulgarian gangs have kept a defensive attitude, but since last Sunday they have decided to attack and that the Bulgarian villagers will help them significantly. I have indeed personally verified that many young Bulgarians have recently left our town and suburbs to join gangs in the kazas of Gevgeli and Koukoush, on which there is no further conversation after the Postolari events.

My opinion is that the Bulgarians have decided to make a last venture in Monastiri area, where they are a majority. Passengers arriving from Monastiri confirm that many muslim villages have been partly burnt down and since yesterday morning news about the Krushevo administration building having been blown up is circulating. This town, with 1700 houses, is populated by BULGARIANS Vlachs and a few muslim Albanians.

It is heard that more than 30 persons, in their majority government employees, have been killed during this Bulgarian uprise, imitating the example of their colleagues in Thessaloniki.

Vernazza

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Austrian diplomatic docmument:

The Austrian consul August Kral to the head of the (Austrian) Foreign Office Count Agenor von Goluchowski.

Monastir, March 11, 1903
Source: Austrian Foreign Office Archives, HHStA PA XXXVIII/Konsulat Monastir. 1903, vol 392, prot.no. 22

Hochgeborener Graf, {your Highness the Count}

The Comitate with unspeakable audacity blackmails economically Bulgarians, Greeks, Wallachs, Christians and Muslims. In case of refusal to pay, the Christians are threatened with murder, and the rich, armed and guarded muslim landowners are threatened with the burning down of their fields. In gathering the money the comitates do not discriminate between the Christians, because, as they assert, their efforts aim to the amendment of the situation of all Christians of Macedonia. The amount of the money requested depends on individual income, but the Comitate is debatable in some special cases. The amount of the contributions varies between 5 and 100 Turkish pounds, some rare times even more. In the Perlepe region, where the Muslims are a minority, each and every Aga has to pay, the same for most Greeks ( i.e. the Wallachs) from Monastiri and the vlach villages, like
Gopes, Mollovista, Tirnovo, Krushevo etc. The comitates have won over, often with by the means of threats, a number of families in the above NON-BULGARIAN small towns. The comitates need such pied-a-terre in important small towns, that, overmore, being non-Bulgarian appear less suspect to the Turks.

The continuing and phenomenal in pressure blackmails, have attenuated to the maximum the anxiety of the non-Bulgarian populations, mainly of the Greeks. Fear dominates everywhere. Noone dares to resist. In this state of terror anyone feels the lack of protection to which he is exposed because of the incompetence, the feableness and the corruption of the turkish administration. There is a strong desire for the regularisation of the situation, which is unbearable, and the need for a new, strong government. I have already stated that the population does not want reforms or autonomy, the majority of the Macedonians want nothing more than the fate of Bosnia.

The execution of the punishments is a permanent chapter of the gangs’ activities. One could mention the recent assasination of the Greek priest in Zelenic, the Greek teacher in Strebeno, a Greek supporter in Ajtos ( all three in the Kaza Florina ), the Serbian priest in Vrbjani and of an Albanian landowner in Lenista (in the Kaza Perlepe) who has been decapitated. Especially the Vrbjani crime has been very shocking, as for two years now there has been no Bulgarian action against the Serbs and therefore the Serbophiles have not been hostile towards the rebel groups. the assasins, now being fugitives, according to the inquiry performed by the Serbian Genaral Consul himself, have been three local villagers, an old friend of the priests’ being one of them, who had to perform the murder as a sort of examination in order to join the comitate.

Kral

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British diplomatic document:

The British General Consul Sir Alfred Billioti to the British Charge D’Affaires J.B.Whitehead.

Source: Foreign Office F.O. 195/2156, p76r-80v, prot.no. 20

Thessaloniki, January 26, 1903

Sir,

Two years ago some Greco-Vlachs, i.e. Wallachians who are educated exclusively in Greek schools and embued with Greek ideas, who in some parts speak nothing but Greek, and form, in the Vilayet of Monastir the bulk of the Macedonian Greek population, requested the permission of the Patriarchate to use the Roumanian language in their churches. The Patriarchate refused but the Exarchate acceded to the request, and this false step on the part of the former caused the first split in the Greco-Vlach party by inducing a number of Vlachs to throw in their lot with the Exarchate. These new converts were, as is usually the case, more fervent than the Exarchists themselves and bashed by the Committees’ bands resorted to intimidation and murder to coarse their compatriots who had remained faithful to the Patriarchate to join them.

One of the first Greco-Vlach villages affected was Oshin in the Caza of Ghevgheli,at the instigation of the Exarchist inhabitants of which two of the most influential Patriarchists were murdered in August last by a Bulgarian band under a certain Giovanni or Yovanoff of Ghevgheli. About three months ago, as I mentioned in my report no 198 of November 9, 1902, he called at Oshin with his band and that of another leader, Argiri, turned out at the Greek schoolmasters, appointed Roumanians (Non-Bulgarian speaking) and tried to induce the Orthodox priest to turn Exarchists, but failing in this they insisted on their reading the liturgy in Roumanian. On the priests’ pleading ignorance of the language Yovanoff gave them six months to learn it. Since their other chiefs have joined Yovanoff and Arghiri, viz. Pavlo, who died lately, Athanasi, Karadouka, and Apostoli, but the men under them do not exceed forty, a number which may, however, be increased at any time by recruits from among the natives. These chiefs have continued the system initiated at Kupa, Oshin, Houma, Longountza, and Loubnitsa, neighbouring villages of Ghevgheli, where also the Patriarchists are in the majority. In the village of Ghera Kortzi, where they form the minority, one of the most influential among them was murdered in broad day light while working in his field by a Bulgarian band some three weeks ago for refusing to recant. Papa Nikola, Orthodox priest of Livadi, another Greco-Vlach village some five hours distance from Goumendje is being threatened with death for remaining Patriarchist and if he is murdered the whole village will join the Exarchate from fear. Meanwhile the forty men forming these Bulgarian bands live at the expense and in the houses of the Orthodox (or Roum, as they are officially termed, whether Greeks or Vlachs, in contradiction to the Exarchists), and no longer of the BULGARIAN peasants, thus shifting the onus of supposed complicity from the latter to the former, as reported to one of my previous dispatches.

The villages in the southwestern district of Ghevheli, Gorpop, Boemitza, Bogdanza, Bores (or Bogros), Stoyakovo, Matchoukovo etc, are only in part Exarchist, but the villages of Yenidje Vardar, Kriva, Barovitza, Tchernareka, Petges, Ramna, Petrovo with Corfalia (or Corfali) in Salonica are entirely Orthodox. None of these are, however, being pressed just now by the bands to join the Exarchate nor to dismiss their Greek schoolmasters but they have been warned to hold themshelves ready to take up arms when ordered to do so in a few months. In the meantime they are threatened with death if they should denounce the bands, for whose reception they are ordered to have a house and provisions in constant readiness. All these details some of which I have already had the honour of reporting, e.g. the payment of the taxes to the Committees agents and not to the Government, the submittal of cases to the Committees representatives and not to the local tribunals, the rape of Dimitris’ daughter at Moouin for her father’s refusal to join the bands and (as I did not know at the time) the exaction from him of twenty five pounds, have only lately come to light. The poor wretches, who suffered, being afraid to visit even Salonica for fear of being suspected of having come to denounce their opressors and only lately have a few dared to come secretly and, explaining their position, enquire what they can do for themselves or what can be done for them. They trembled lest the bands should discover what would assuredly cost them their lives.

The Vali himself is at a loss how to relieve the Patriarchists. He told me a forthnight ago that he had summoned the Kaimakamis of Ghevgheli and Yenidje Vardar and secretly arranged with them to invest all the villages mentioned above on a given day and in case of need to repeat the operation until successful, and also to send out flying columns. But nothing has been done, nor do I anticipate any very brillant result from such a plan even if carried out properly and thoroughly with the strong force required since many of the Komitatjis are villagers against whom it would be difficult to prove anything, while the strangers have secured themselves against denunciation by the terrorism which they have established, and would succeed in slipping through the lines. Want of foresight on the part of the Government has, I fear, allowed matters to go too far for any remedy to be easily discoverable. The late Halil Rifat Pasha was induced by the dread of an “atrocities outcry”, which has after all been raised, to allow the small minority of new-made Exarchists to share the Churches of the Patriarchists, who naturally regarded them as schismatics and to use the Bulgarian Liturgy – or to cause the closure of the Churches for months, thus depriving their original proprietors of the means of fulfilling their religious duties, even on such holidays as Christmas and Easter. The support thus given to the Exarchists was the more regrettable that it encouraged the revolutionary Committees to attain their end by assasinating the priests whom they could not bribe and the notables whom they could not coerce. I frequently called the successive Valis’ attention to this policy as detrimental to the interests of their Government, but in answer they all said that they were acting orders from the Porte which they could not disregard. The only other band which is known to exist in this Vilayet is that of Alexis of Poroia. The daring which prompted his attempt on the train ( as reported in my dispatch No13 of the 17 inst.) near the station of Poroia proves how far the bands have esthablished themselves or, at least, how inadequate are the means employed by the local authorities hitherto in coping with them.

The sufferings of the Greeks, described above, extend also to those Bulgarians and Vlachs who are Patriarchists and can only be remedied by the extermination of the few now existing bands, which if not destroyed will form the nucleus of larger bands in the spring. Only exceptionally severe and thorough measures can effect this and only the appointment of the most trustworthy officers for the work can prevent an “atrocities outcry”.

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The American Consul Pericles Lazzaro to the Consulate General and the Embassy

Source: [NAUSA, roll 2, vol.1 from July 5, 1902 to February 2, 1910, ff.26r-29r, inclosed in Nos 605 XI]

Thessaloniki, September 10th, 1903

The case of Kruchevo is typical, because it shows that the tactics of the Bulgarians consist in compromising Greek towns, and that the Turks have neither learnt anything, not forgotten any of their old tricks.

Reports show that about 35 Bulgarian and Greek villages have been plundered and burned by the Turkish troops in the Monastir Vilayet since the recent outbreak. The number of Turkish villages treated likewise by the Bulgarians is about 20. Many hundreds of bodies are lying unburied all over the country. Smilevo has had the same fate with Kruchevo, and there also no difference was made between those who had remained loyal to the Government and those who were in sympathy with the rebels.

On Aug. 26th 400 rebels entered the Graeco-Wallachian town of Neveska, near Klissura (Exisou station) on their way they came across a detachment of 150 soldiers, of these 20 only succeeded in escaping, the others, it seems, were killed by the rebels. After ransoming the town the B[ulgarian]s fortified themselves in the stone barracks which are outside Neveska. Four battalions of troops having arrived the next day from Kastoria and Florina, the rebels retreated with hardly any losses, as far as I can make out.

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Greek Newspaper ‘Empros’ – 30th April of 1905. reads as follows:

Quote:

General retreat of the Bulgarian gangs

Bienna, Saturday morning.

Telegrams from Konstantinople to Bienna’s newspapers announce that the Bulgarian gangs in Macedonia, because of their repeated defeats, in which they had suffered from the Turkish army and the Greek Macedonian bodies, were compelled to escape to Bulgaria. The news from Macedonia mentions that the Bulgarian comitadjis are working fiercely and are preparing a general attack of the Bulgarians in Macedonian against Greeks and Serbs, whom its beleived they will join forces for against such an attack.

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„Prior to 1908, the Macedonian Bulgarians were the most militant element…”

-page 372 in the Turkish edition). Memoires of the Turkish national hero Enver Bey (Enver Pasha).

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It was in Macedonia that the real revolutionary organization, uncompromising and jealous of its independence, was to be found. For the origins of this internal organization we must go back to 1893 when, in the little village of Resna, a small group of young Bulgarian intellectuals founded a secret society with the clearly expressed intention of “preparing the Christian population for armed struggle against the Turkish regime in order to win personal security and guarantees for order and justice in the administration,” which may be translated as the political autonomy of Macedonia.

–Carnegie Endowment for International peace, Commission to Inquire into the causes and conduct of the Balkan wars, published 1914

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“The European intervention which they demanded was to support only Bulgarian claims; ‘autonomy for Macedonia’ was to be a half-way house to Great Bulgaria.”

-Edith Durham, ‘The Burden of the Balkans’ (1905), p 221

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“The Krusevo manifesto was declared, assuring the population that the uprising was against the Sultan and not against Muslims in general, and that all peoples would be included. As the population of Krusevo was two thirds hellenised Vlachs and Patriarchist Slavs, this was a wise move. Despite these promises the insurgent flew Bulgarian flags everywhere and in many places the uprising did entail attacks on Muslim Turks and Albanians wh themselves organised for self defence.”

[Hugh Poulton, “Who are the Macedonians”, Indiana University Press, 2000, p.57]

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The Modern VMRO

It should be noted that there are two modern organisations calling themselves ‘VMRO’ despite neither having any real connection with the historic VMRO other than being symbolic. The two parties are a modern political party in F.Y.R.O.M, the VMRO-DNMPE, as well as the BMRO, a modern political party in Bulgaria. Neither of the two parties have any connection.

By Voulgaroktonos

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