Treaty between Philip II of Macedon and Chalcideans

Bottom right-hand corner of a block of local limestone, found in 1934 at Myriophyto, about three-quarters of a mile W. of Olynthus. Careless and irregular script with incised horizontal guide-lines; 0 0 X fl are smaller than the other letters. In 1. I11 (1~ has a triangle in place of an oval. Facs. Trans. Am. Phil. Ass. lxv. 104, phot. ibid. P1. I. D. M. Robinson, Trans. Am. Phil. Ass. lxv. 103 ff. Cf. M. Segre, Riv. Fit. lxiii. 49 7ff.

Philip II treaty with Chalcideans 

The extant portion of this treaty, if rightly restored, opens with the formula of the oath of alliance (11. 2, 3) and ordains that the federal magistrates and the envoys of the Chalcidians shall take the oath to Philip, and Philip himself, and any others whom the Chalcidians demand, that to the Chalcidians (11. 3-5), swearing in solemn form and in all sincerity by Zeus, Ge, Helios and Posidon (11. 5-7).

This document, together with the Delphian oracle relative to o the alliance, shall be inscribed by the Chalcidians in the Temple of Artemis at Olynthus, by Philip in that of Zeus Olympius at Dium, by both at Delphi (11. 7-10). Any modifications approved by both parties may be made by common consent (11. 10, 11). The text of the oracle follows, as is prescribed, approving the making of friendship and alliance on the agreed terms (11. 12, 13), and directing the performance of sacrifices to Zeus, Apollo, Artemis and Hermes, the offering of prayers for the success of the alliance and the dispatch to Apollo at Delphi of suitable offerings (11. 13-16; LvacL8cLopeEv is restored from Dem. xxi. 52, [Dem.] xliii. 66). The document, in form strongly reminiscent of Nos. 111, 127, was set up in the temple of Artemis at Olynthus (1. 8/9) to record the alliance concluded between the Olynthians and Philip II of Macedon late in 357 or early in 356 B.C. The circumstances are thus summarized by Robinson (op. cit. 106):

‘After consolidating his position on the throne of Macedon in 359, Philip proceeded to extend and strengthen his influence in the North, and in 357 took firm possession of Amphipolis while lulling the Athenians into inactivity by promises to turn the city over to them. The Olynthians, who were in closer touch with conditions than the Athenians, were not deceived in regard to Philip’s true intentions and, realizing the danger of their own position, probably in the same year sought an alliance with Athens; but the Athenians, still blinded by Philip’s promises, refused their offer and thus gave them no recourse other than to seek alliance with Philip. The present treaty was the result.’ But though Philip gave the Olynthians Potidaea and Anthemus, their suspicions of his good faith were aroused and they again sought the alliance of Athens; the lukewarmness of the Athenian support, however, despite Demosthenes’ appeals and warnings, led to the destruction of Olynthus and the dissolution of the Chalcidic League in August, 348 (No. 166).

See further for these events A. B. West, History of the Chalcidic League, 115 ff., Beloch, G.G. iii (1). 228 ff., A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, C.A.H. vi. 200 ff., A. Momigliano, Filippo il Macedone, 47 f., M. Gude, A History of Olynthus, 32 if., D. M. Robinson and P. A. Clement, Excavations at Olynthus, ix. 154 ff. The treaty is mentioned or suggested in various passages in ancient authors (collected by Scala, Staatsvertrdge, 185 f., No. 185), especially in Dem. i Arg. 2, xxiii. 108, Diod. xvi. 8. 3, but in none of these is any allusion found to the intervention of the Delphic oracle (11. 7 f., 12 ff.), which proved so useful to Philip later in his reign (Plut. Demosth. xx. 1, Cic. Div. ii. 118), and to Apollo’s approval of the treaty already agreed upon (1. 13). This oracle strikingly resembles those preserved in Dem. xxi. 52, [Dem.] xliii. 66. The dialect of the earlier part of our inscription (11. 1-11) is the Euboic Ionian, used at Chalcis and her colonies (cf. Nos. 111, 150), while the oracle itself (11. 12-16) is in the ‘Northwestern Greek’ current in Delphi and Phocis (cf. Nos. 140, 169, 172 A). For oavijLaXwaco (1. 2) at the opening of an oath of alliance cf. S.I.G. 366. 9, Michel, 29. 15, 21.

The phrase ras dpXas Ta-&s vvas (1. 3) refers to the federal magistrates of the Chalcidian League, and disproves F. Hampl’s contention (Hermes, lxx. 177 ff.) that Olynthians and Chalcidians are the same and that there was never a federation of Chalcidian cities, but only the roAcs of Olynthus. The Ionian word vvod is here used, though in 1. 10 KOLVOS takes its place; for a similar use of KOLVOS with reference to magistrates see I.G. ix (1). 98. 9 f., ix (2). 412. 7, 1101. 4 f., PX. ‘Eqb. 1910, 334, 1. 20. For the taking of oaths by envoys (1. 4) cf. Thuc. v. 38. 1, Xen. Hell. v. 3. 26, S.I.G. 588. 77 ff. The phrase ovs av tAAovs Kit. (1. 4) probably refers primarily to Philip’s Ecrapot (cf. No. 165, 11. 10 if., S.E.G. iii. 14. 16 ff.). The four Oeol OpKLoL (1. 5), by whom both Philip and the Olynthians swear, occur frequently in this role, e.g. in No. 157, 1. 38, S.I.G. 366. 7, 434. 87, O.G.I. 266. 23 f.; for rdauveLv (Ionic for rTELVEWv) oPpKLa (1. 6/7) cf. S.I.G. 4. 10, 45. 44. The alliance and the oracle shall, it is agreed (11. 7-10), be published by the Chalcidians at their capital Olynthus, by Philip at Dium, where the Macedonian kings celebrated games and offered sacrifices in honour of Zeus, and by both jointly at Delphi; for a similar arrangement see Thuc. v. 18. 10, 47. 11,S.I.G. 366. 2 ff. In 1. 10/11 provision is made for the modification of this alliance by common consent of the contracting parties (cf.S.E.G. iii. 14.15 ff.,Thuc. v. 18. 11, 47.12, Nos. 101, 11. llff., 102,11. 9 ff., 103, 11.8 ff.); according to Robinson (op. cit. 117 f.), this may be done ‘in course of time’ (Xpovov TrpofalivovTos), according to Segre’s tentative suggestion ‘after the lapse of three months’ (XpovwcoL T-pV vqrIv6ov), but despite Robinson’s assurance that the final o of 1. 10 is certain, I hanker after KOLVWLt Aoycol XpW [tJvoLs dIoOLS EpoLs LeracOelval] or some similar phrase (cf. Hdt. i. 166, v. 63. 3, Thuc. iv. 64. 3, v. 18. 11). For the opening phrase of the oracle (1. 12) cf. S.1.G. 735.24, 1044.5, 1158. 2 ff. In encouraging the Chalcidians to enter into alliance with Philip the oracle was advocating a policy opposed to Athenian interests, but this is hardly surprising in view of the strained relations between Athens and the Delphic Amphictiony at this time suggested by S.I.G. 175

Bibliography: A Selection of Greek historical inscriptions / edited by Marcus N. Tod