Hellenism of ancient Macedonian from FYROM sources

1)’We are not to be amazed that in the archaeological material of Pelagonia we have a rarely great wealth of reflections of all pronounced cultural events in the relations between middle-Danubian and Graeco-Aegean world

‘Mikulcic,Ivan “Pelagonija”,Skopje,1966,pp.2

‘In a such great chronological distance in the life of ancient Pelagonia two stages are visible: development and existence in the frames of Hellenic culture and later the Roman one’



‘The lower part of Vardar is certainly the area south of Demir-Kapija gorge that entered Hellenic cultural sphere very early and already before 600 b.c. the material culture is thoroughly Hellenised.'”

The Valley of Vardar in Ist millennium b.c”,Skopje,1982,pp.2

3)’Even in the last decades of 5th century stabilization in all spheres of social life is established. As first sign of the new time import from Graeco-Macedonian south appeared as well as fortified settlements that later grew into urban centers with character of economic and religious nuclei of the region'”

Guide to the archaeological exhibition”,Skopje,1996,pp.54

4)’For example,Pelagonia,which is naturally oriented to the South, was the first to be subjected to Greek influence, together with the lower part of Vardar’

“Archaeologic Map of the Republic of Macedonia”,Skopje,1996,pp.71

5)‘From the mountains of Epirus Dorian Makednoi (Macedonians) made their advance towards Macedonia, conquering the native tribes who latter gained new, Hellenistic culture and after that are politically organized into a powerful state’

“The Art in Macedonia”,Skopje,1984 pp.26

6)’Paeonians,a people who during the first millennia b.c inhabited border area between the three great paleobalkanic peoples-Illyrians, Thracians and Hellenes

Veljanovska,Fanica ” An Attempt at Anthropological Definition of the Paeonians”,Skopje,1994

7)’…Certain proto-populations occupying distinct areas of the Balkans could be distinguished on the territories of the cultural groups :in western part of the Balkans the proto-Illyrians, in the east the proto Thracians, in the south the Hellenes, in the northern part of the Balkans the proto Daco-Mysians and in the southwest of the Central Balkans the proto Bryges.

“Bryges on the central Balkans in the 2nd and 1st millennium b.c.” (summary)

“Arheologija” No 1,Skopje 1995

8)’With the end of Iron Age III, i.e. with the total Hellenisation of material culture,the prehistory of Macedonia ends

.‘Sanev,Vojislav “Prehistory of S.R. Macedonia”,Skopje 1977,pp.13

9)”The Art of Antiquity left in the region of Ohrid a great number of traces of its own presence.Illyrian forts imported goods from Greek centers and imitated them in a modest fashion. Political advancement of the Macedonians and their domination enabled cultural influx that manifested itself through products of crafts and alphabet. From the times of Phillip II deeper advances in the area of Lychnidos are attested.Cultural influences of the Graeco-Macedonian world are more present.Rich Hellenistic culture arrived at Illyrian soil””

Ohrid” by Vera Bitrakova-Grozdanova ,in:”The Art in Macedonia” ,Skopje 1984, pp.85

10)”With the increase of influences from developed cultured south and with the acceptation of Hellenic influences over Paeonia,which already in the V and IV centuries b.c.have committed great changes in the Paeonian culture, usage of Greek Pantheon was also accepted

Petrova,Eleonora “Cults and symbolism of Paeonian tribes compared with the Illyrian and Thracian onesin: “Macedoniae Acta Archeologica”,Skopje No.13,pp.129

“Having the central position in this part of the Balkans,Paeonia,apart from receiving influences from the Hellenic south, wasn’t an exception with regard to influences from Illyrian and Thracian sphere”


11)”Greek epigraphic monuments created before definitive Roman domination of our area are to be found in modest quantity”

Bitrakova Grozdanova,Vera “Hellenistic Monuments in S.R.Macedonia”,Skopje,1987,pp. 130

“Study of the inscriptions speaks about epigraphic characteristics of the neighboring Macedonian-Hellenic world

Ibidem. pp.103

12)”During the early arhaic period at the Macedonian territory,the Dorian tribal groups came across over the Pindos mountain,to the area of today’s North-Western Greece and parts of the southern Republic of Macedonia.They established several early principalities partially by chasing away the local Paeonian tribes.Those tribal groups were the ancient Macedonians

“”Macedonian Heritage”,No 1,july 1996,pp.5

13)”The northern periphery of Greek world, inhabited with ancient Macedonians and other peoples and tribes, wasn’t developed for democracy as the most developed social system at that time”

Mikulcic,Ivan “Ancient towns in the Republic of Macedonia”,Skopje,1999,pp.9

Our overview was exposed chronologically. The first part embraces the early antiquity in our country, the period from 5th century b.c. up to the middle 3rd century b.c.. Throughout this centuries one can follow the Hellenic spirit and the creation of the Hellenic civilization in our areas, which left a basic imprint on the material artifacts”

Ibidem. pp.10-11

14)”The quantitative ceramic material used to be produced with the usual process including the labor of persons .Partly because of that, partly because of the traditions that had taken roots into our soil, which with centuries before that used to be watered with Hellenic spirit and Hellenistic way of life ,the use of the building ceramics had been brought to minimum

Lilcic,Viktor “Building ceramics in the Republic of Macedonia during the Roman Period:Scupi,Stobi,Heraclea Lynkestis,Styberra“,Skopje,1996,pp.120

15)”In any case during the classical and Hellenistic periods and especially in the 4th and 3rd centuries b.c. we can no longer speak of Paeonian cult in the Peaonian region ,but of cults adopted by the entire Hellenic civilization, where through the material culture, elements of spiritual life from developed south were adopted. This was followed by the strenghtening of the autochthonous elements above all, the solar cult. Since Paeonians were centrally located in this region of the Balkans,they were influenced from the Hellenic south but they also couldn’t avoid the influences from the Illyrian and Thracian sphere”

Petrova,Eleonora “The cults, symbolism and Deities in Paeonian and neighboring regions

“Macedonia and the neighboring regions from 3rd to1st millennium b.c.-Papers presented at the international symposium in Struga-1997”,Skopje,1999,pp.118


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