eumenes of cardia (c. 360-316 B.c.)
Eumenes, son of Hieronymos was born at Kardia in the Thracian Chersonese. He was one of the very few non-Macedonian Greeks who commanded Macedonian armies with success. Firstly, he was first employed as secretary (γραμματεύς) by Philip and after Philip’s death, he continued to provide the same services under Alexander. Later he accompanied Alexander to Asia as chief of the royal secretariat. But Alexander seems to have recognized military talent in him too. In the Indian campaign he is given the opportunity to have his first recorded military command. In Late 324 BC, after the death of Hephaestion, he was appointed by Alexander to one of the highest posts in the army, that of hipparch. During the Susa Marriages, Eumenes married Artonis, , the daughter of Artabazus and sister of Barsine. After Alexander’s death, he was made satrap of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia, became the trusted lieutenant of Perdiccas and in 321 BC defeated an invading army from Macedonia and killed Craterus, its general.
In the aftermath of Antipater’s death, Eumenes was harried by the forces of Antigonus but received support from Polyperchon. He was placed in command of the veteran corps of Macedonian infantry known as the Silver Shields (Αργυρασπίδες) and commissioned to raise forces for Polyperchon in Asia Minor. He conducted a skilful running war with Antigonus for two years, until he was finally betrayed by the Silver Shields, captured and executed.
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