“…it is very interesting to note that many of the authentic ancient Macedonian words, according to their etymology and pronunciation, have a striking resemblance to the appropriate words used in the modern Macedonian language (and other so called “Slav”[sic] languages).”
“Atarhi(as). The root of this name contains the noun “atar”. This is a Macedonian archaism for the word “love”. Names that contain the word “love” exist in a majority of lexicons.”
From: “Similarities between ancient Macedonian and today’s’ Macedonian Culture (Linguistics and Onomastics)” by Aleksandar Donski, celebrity folk “historian” from FYROM.
In most Slavic languages we encounter the beautiful Slavic word Ljubov/любовь, Ljubav/љубав, Lubov, Ljubav/любaвь, Ljubov,/любов, with slightly changes from one Slavic language to another: it is the Slavic word for Love. There are other Slavic words for Love, like Kocham, Láska, Oбичам
Τhere was a man in Thebes called Archias/Ἀρχίας, and during the turbulent times of the early 4th century BC in Greece he was one of the strongmen governing dictatorially that city. He was one of the oligarchs, an ally of oligarchic Sparta. The democratic Thebans, under the leadership of a young revolutionary, Pelopidas, with the support of democratic Athens, wanted to stage a coup and kill Archias and his fellowmen. They arranged to attack him in a party, given by the crypto-democrat Phyllidas/Φυλλίδας
ἧκε γάρ τις ἐξ Ἀθηνῶν παρ‘ Ἀρχίου τοῦ ἱεροφάντου πρὸς Ἀρχίαν τὸν ὁμώνυμον, ξένον ὄντα καὶ φίλον, ἐπιστολὴν κομίζων οὐ κενὴν ἔχουσαν οὐδὲ πεπλασμένην ὑπόνοιαν, ἀλλὰ σαφῶς ἕκαστα περὶ τῶν 8 πρασσομένων φάσκουσαν, ὡς ὕστερον ἐπεγνώσθη.
for a messenger came with a letter from one Archias, the Hierophant at Athens, to his namesake Archias, who was his friend and guest. This did not merely contain a vague conjectural suspicion but, as it appeared afterwards, disclosed every particular of the design.
τότε δὲ μεθύοντι τῷ Ἀρχίᾳ προσαχθεὶς ὁ γραμματοφόρος καὶ τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἐπιδούς “ὁ ταύτην” ἔφη “πέμψας ἐκέλευσεν εὐθὺς ἀναγνῶναι· περὶ σπουδαίων γάρ τινων γεγράφθαι
The messenger being brought in to Archias, who was now pretty well drunk, and delivering the letter, said to him, ‘The writer of this desired it might be read at once; it is on urgent business
9 ” καὶ ὁ Ἀρχίας μειδιάσας “οὐκοῦν εἰς αὔριον” ἔφη “τὰ σπουδαῖα,” καὶ τὴν ἐπιστολὴν δεξάμενος ὑπὸ τὸ προσκεφάλαιον ὑπέθηκεν, αὐτὸς δὲ πάλιν τῷ Φυλλίδᾳ 10 περὶ ὧν ἐτύγχανον διαλεγόμενοι προσεῖχεν. ὁ μὲν οὖν λόγος οὗτος ἐν παροιμίας τάξει περιφερόμενος μέχρι νῦν διασῴζεται παρὰ τοῖς Ἕλλησι.
Archias, with a smile, replied, ‘Urgent business tomorrow,’ and so receiving the letter, he put it under his pillow, and returned to what he had been speaking of with Phillidas, and these words of his are a proverb to this day amongst the Greeks.
Two and a half milennia later, Greeks indeed still use this expression, that has so much mortal irony in it. It is like the negation of the Mexican Mañana (leaving things of today for tomorrow), with a heavy doze of black humor: εἰς αὔριον τὰ σπουδαῖα“/ eis aurion ta spoudaia
But let us see what happened to Archias:
ἐσπάσαντο τὰς μαχαίρας καὶ φερόμενοι διὰ τῶν τραπεζῶν ἐπὶ τὸν Ἀρχίαν καὶ Φίλιππον ἐφάνησαν οἵπερ ἦσαν, ὀλίγους μὲν ὁ Φυλλίδας τῶν κατακειμένων ἔπεισεν ἡσυχίαν ἄγειν, τοὺς δ‘ ἄλλους ἀμύνεσθαι μετὰ τῶν πολεμάρχων ἐπιχειροῦντας καὶ συνεξανισταμένους διὰ τὴν μέθην οὐ πάνυ χαλεπῶς ἀπέκτειναν.
they drew their swords, and making at Archias and Philip amongst the tables, disclosed who they were. Phillidas persuaded some few of his guests to sit still, and those that got up and tried to assist the polemarch, being drunk, were easily killed.
Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Pelopidas
The unfortunate Theban Archias was not the only one Greek man known by that name. There was also the Macedonian Archias son of Anaxidotus from Pella / Ἀρχίας Ἀναξιδότου Πελλαῖος / Archias Anaxidotou Pellaios, who was an officer and a geographer who served as Trierarch (governot of a trireme/τρίηρης ship) under admiral Nearchos/Νέαρχος
ἐνταῦθα ἐκβαίνουσί τε ἐκ τῶν νεῶν καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν πολλῶν πόνων ἄσμενοι ἀνεπαύοντο, μεμνημένοι, ὅσα κακὰ κατὰ τὴν θάλασσαν πεπονθότες ἦσαν, καὶ πρὸς τῇ γῇ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων, τήν τε ἐρημίην τῆς χώρης καὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ὅπως θηριώδεες, καὶ τὰς σφῶν ἀπορίας ἐπιλεγόμενοι. καί τινες αὐτῶν ἀπὸ θαλάσσης ἐς τὸ πρόσω ἀνῆλθον, ἀποσκεδασθέντες τῆς στρατιῆς κατὰ ζήτησιν ἄλλος ἄλλου
καὶ τὰς σφῶν ἀπορίας ἐπιλεγόμενοι. καί τινες αὐτῶν ἀπὸ θαλάσσης ἐς τὸ πρόσω ἀνῆλθον, ἀποσκεδασθέντες τῆς στρατιῆς κατὰ ζήτησιν ἄλλος ἄλλου.
ἐνταῦθα ἄνθρωπός σφισιν ὤφθη χλαμύδα τε φορῶν Ἑλληνικὴν καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ὡς Ἕλλην ἐσκευασμένος, καὶ φωνὴν Ἑλλάδα ἐφώνεε. τοῦτον οἱ πρῶτοι ἰδόντες δακρῦσαι ἔλεγον· οὕτω τι παράλογόν σφισι φανῆναι ἐκ τῶν τοσῶνδε κακῶν Ἕλληνα μὲν ἄνθρωπον ἰδεῖν, Ἑλλάδος δὲ φωνῆς ἀκοῦσαι. ἐπηρώτων τε, ὁπόθεν ἥκοι καὶ ὅστις ὤν· ὃ δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ στρατοπέδου τοῦ Ἀλεξάνδρου ἀποσκεδασθῆναι ἔλεγε, καὶ εἶναι οὐ πόρρω τὸ στρατόπεδον καὶ αὐτὸν Ἀλέξανδρον. τοῦτον τὸν ἄνθρωπον βοῶντές τε καὶ κροτέοντες ἀνάγουσι παρὰ τὸν Νέαρχον· καὶ Νεάρχῳ πάντα ἔφρασε, καὶ ὅτι πέντε ἡμερέων ὁδὸν ἀπέχει τὸ στρατόπεδον καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀπὸ τῆς θαλάσσης.
There they disembarked, and had a welcome rest from their long toils, remembering the miseries they had endured by sea and on the coast of the Fish-eaters; recounting one to another the desolate character of the country, the almost bestial nature of the inhabitants, and their own distresses. Some of them advanced some distance inland, breaking away from the main force, some in pursuit of this, and some of that. There a man appeared to them, wearing a Greek cloak, and dressed otherwise in the Greek fashion, and speaking Greek also. Those who first sighted him said that they burst into tears, so strange did it seem after all these miseries to see a Greek, and to hear Greek spoken. They asked whence he came, who he was; and he said that he had become separated from Alexander’s camp, and that the camp, and Alexander himself, were not very far distant. Shouting aloud and clapping their hands they brought this man to Nearchos; and he told Nearchos everything, and that the camp and the King himself were distant five days’ journey from the coast.
Reading the narrative above, I would think that someone who had doubts about the language of the Macedonians will think twice after this: Why should these battle hardened Macedonian men cry like children expressing their raw emotions after having heard someone speaking Greek to them, Ἑλλάδος δὲ φωνῆς ἀκοῦσαι/having heard the voice of Greece, in exact translation, had Greek not been their own language too? I cannot think that a Frenchman will cry out of joy hearing someone speaking German in a foreign land, yet these Macedonians ἰδόντες δακρῦσαι ἔλεγον· οὕτω τι παράλογόν σφισι φανῆναι ἐκ τῶν τοσῶνδε κακῶν Ἕλληνα μὲν ἄνθρωπον ἰδεῖν, Ἑλλάδος δὲ φωνῆς ἀκοῦσαι/ they burst into tears, so strange did it seem
ἐν τούτῳ δὲ τῶν τινες κατὰ ζήτησιν τοῦ Νεάρχου ἐσταλμένων ἵππους τε ἐπὶ κομιδῇ αὐτῶν καὶ ἀπήνας δὲ ἄγοντες ἐντυγχάνουσι κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτῷ τε Νεάρχῳ καὶ τῷ Ἀρχίῃ καὶ πέντε ἢ ἓξ ἅμα αὐτοῖσιν· μετὰ τοσούτων γὰρ ἀνῄει. καὶ ἐντυχόντες οὔτε αὐτὸν ἐγνώρισαν οὔτε τὸν Ἀρχίην – οὕτω τοι κάρτα ἀλλοῖοι ἐφάνησαν, κομόωντές τε καὶ ῥυπόωντες καὶ μεστοὶ ἅλμης καὶ ῥικνοὶ τὰ σώματα καὶ ὠχροὶ ὑπὸ ἀγρυπνίης τε καὶ τῆς ἄλλης ταλαιπωρίης – ἀλλὰ ἐρομένοις γὰρ αὐτοῖς ἵναπερ εἴη Ἀλέξανδρος, ὑποκρινάμενοι τὸν χῶρον οἳ δὲ παρήλαυνον. Ἀρχίης δὲ ἐπιφρασθεὶς λέγει πρὸς Νέαρχον “ὦ Νέαρχε, τούτους τοὺς ἀνθρώπους δι‘ ἐρημίας ἐλαύνειν τὴν αὐτὴν ἡμῖν ὁδὸν οὐκ ἐπ‘ ἄλλῳ τινὶ συντίθημι, ἢ ὅτι μὴ κατὰ ζήτησιν τὴν ἡμετέρην ἀπεσταλμένους. ὅτι δὲ οὐ γιγνώσκουσιν ἡμέας, οὐκ ἐν θώματι ποιέομαι· οὕτω γάρ τι ἔχομεν κακῶς ὡς ἄγνωστοι εἶναι. φράσωμεν αὐτοῖσιν, οἵτινές εἰμεν, καὶ αὐτοὺς ἐρώμεθα, καθότι ταύτῃ ἐλαύνουσιν.” ἔδοξε τῷ Νεάρχῳ ἐναίσιμα λέγειν· καὶ ἤροντο ὅποι ἐλαύνουσιν· οἳ δὲ ὑποκρίνονται, ὅτι κατὰ ζήτησιν Νεάρχου τε καὶ τοῦ στρατοῦ τοῦ ναυτικοῦ. ὃ δέ “οὗτος” ἔφη “ἐγώ εἰμι Νέαρχος, καὶ Ἀρχίας οὗτος. ἀλλ‘ ἄγετε ἡμέας· ἡμεῖς δὲ τὰ ὑπὲρ τῆς στρατιῆς Ἀλεξάνδρῳ ἀπηγησόμεθα.”
Meanwhile, however, some of those sent to search for Nearchos, who had horses to convey him, and chariots, did meet on the way Nearchos and Archias, and five or six others; that was the number of the party which came inland with him. On this meeting they recognized neither Nearchos nor Archias — so altered did they appear; with their hair long, unwashed, covered with brine, wizened, pale from sleeplessness and all their other distresses; when, however, they asked where Alexander might be, the search party gave reply as to the locality and passed on. Archias, however, had a happy thought, and said to Nearchos: ‘I suspect, Nearchos, that these persons who are traversing the same road as ours through this desert country have been sent for the express purpose of finding us; as for their failure to recognize us, I do not wonder at that; we are in such a sorry plight as to be unrecognizable. Let us tell them who we are and ask them why they come hither.’ Nearchos approved; they did ask whither the party was going; and they replied: ‘To look for Nearchos and his naval force.’ Whereupon, ‘Here am I, Nearchos,’ said he, ‘and here is Archias. Do you lead on; we will make a full report to Alexander about the expeditionary force.’
Arrian, Allexander Anabasis / Ἀρριανού, Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἀνάβασις
Archias seems to have been an immensely popular name among ancient Greeks. Hundreds of inscriptions with the names Archias have been found.
Among many others, there were actually several Greek poets by this very name, like Archias of Macedon/Αρχίας ο Μακεδών, Archias of Byzantium/Αρχίας Βυζαντινός, Archias of Mytilene/Αρχίας ο Μυτιληναίος, Archias the Grammarian or the Younger / Αρχίας ο Γραμματικός ή Νεώτερος
Here is a poetic fragment from Archias the Macedonian who wrote in the Doric Greek dialect (should we maybe ask the later day “makedonists” to “translate” it, using their Bugarski-derived Slavic dialect? I am sure professor Aleksandar Donski would be up to the task, or better yet, another pseudo-makedonist going under the pseudonym “Petrus Invictus”, who published a “treatise” on why Homer’s language is purely Slavic and has -of course!- no relation to Greek:
Then of course we also have the testimonial of another FYROM’s pseudo-makedonist regime apologist, Dr. Petar Popovsky, who in all seriousness propagates in front of Skopje’s Makedonska Televizija (the state-controlled tv station), why and how Homer wrote his Iliad and Odyssey epics in the yugo-Slavic Makedonski dialect, and not in the Greek language:
Given the earth shaking nature of such a revelation, someone could propose the immediate and irrevocable shutting down of all the Homeric studies departments in Universities, worldwide, starting with Oxford, Sorbonne, Cambridge and Harvard for having so grossly misled us for centuries now! They might as well invite Dr. Petar Popovsky of Skopje instead, to assist them in the reconstitution of Homeric studies by incorporating them as part of the Slavic languages curriculum…
Balkan nationalistic delusions and Skopje-originating pseudo-macedonian propaganda aside, we move to Archias the (real) Macedonian’s/Αρχίου τού Μακεδόνος
Καὶ γενέταν τοῦ νέρϑε καὶ οὔνομα καὶ χϑόνα φώνει,
στάλα, καὶ ποίᾳ κηρὶ δαμεὶς ἔϑανε.
Γεννήτωρ Πρίαμος, γᾶ δ‘ ῎Ιλιον, οὔνομα δ‘ ῞Εκτωρ,
ὦνερ, ὑπὲρ πάτρας δ‘ ὤλετο μαρνάμενος.
And the family ancestor, the one below the ground and the name and the earth all cried loud
the gravestone, and what evil injury having he at last subdued he died,
Priamos was the Ancestor, and Ilion the land, and the name is Hector
having bargained for the sake of the fatherland, and destroyed it through fraternal strife
Archias the Macedonian 7.140 / Aρχίου τού Μακεδόνος
Another poet named Archias was Aulus Archias/Αύλος Αρχίας, born circa 120 BC, in Antiochia/Αντιόχεια, Syria. Οnce he became a Roman citizen, he also added his Roman middle name Licinius: Aulus Licinius Archias/Αύλος Λικίνιος Αρχίας
Φεύγειν δὴ τὸν ῎Ερωτα· κενὸς πόνος· οὐ γὰρ ἀλύξω
πεζὸς ὑπὸ πτηνοῦ πυκνὰ διωκόμενος.
Trying to escape from Eros? a futile effort; I won’t get stressed over it!
since I am on foot while being closely chased by a winged one…
Aulus Licinius Archias was accused by a certain Roman named Gracchus of pretending to have acquired the rights of the Roman citizen illegally and he had none other than his former student Cicero defend him at his trial, leaving for posterity one of the most celebrated speeches in Latin language: Pro Archia Poeta Oratio.
1] Si quid est in me ingeni, judices, quod sentio quam sit exiguum, aut si qua exercitatio dicendi,
in qua me non infitior mediocriter esse versatum, aut si hujusce rei ratio aliqua ab optimarum artium studiis ac disciplina profecta, a qua ego nullum confiteor aetatis meae tempus abhorruisse, earum rerum omnium vel in primis hic Archias Licinius fructum a me repetere prope suo jure debet.
IF there be any natural ability in me, O judges,—and I know how slight that is; or if I have any method in my oratory, drawn from my study of the liberal sciences, and from that careful training to which I admit that at no part of my life have I ever been disinclined; certainly, of all those qualities, this Aulus Licinius is entitled to be among the first to claim the benefit from me as his peculiar right.
Nam quoad longissime potest mens mea respicere spatium praeteriti temporis, et pueritiae memoriam recordari ultimam, inde usque repetens hunc video mihi principem et ad suscipiendam et ad ingrediendam rationem horum studiorum exstitisse.
For as far as ever my mind can look back upon the space of time that is past, and recall the memory of its earliest youth, tracing my life from that starting-point, I see that Archias was the principal cause of my undertaking, and the principal means of my mastering, those studies.
Therefore, I say that the men by whose genius these exploits are celebrated, make illustrious at the same time the glory of the Roman people.
Quae quorum ingeniis efferuntur, ab eis populi Romani fama celebratur.
Nam si quis minorem gloriae fructum putat ex Graecis versibus percipi quam ex Latinis, vehementer errat: propterea quod Graeca leguntur in omnibus fere gentibus, Latina suis finibus, exiguis sane, continentur. Qua re si res eae quas gessimus orbis terrae regionibus definiuntur, cupere debemus, quo manuum nostrarum tela pervenerint, eodem gloriam famamque penetrare: quod cum ipsis populis de quorum rebus scribitur, haec ampla sunt, tum eis certe, qui de vita gloriae causa dimicant, hoc maximum et periculorum incitamentum est et laborum. Quam multos scriptores rerum suarum magnus ille Alexander secum habuisse dicitur! Atque is tamen, cum in Sigeo ad Achillis tumulum astitisset: “O fortunate” inquit “adulescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem inveneris!” Et vere. Nam nisi Illias illa exstitisset, idem tumulus, qui corpus ejus contexerat, nomen etiam obruisset.
For if any one thinks that there is a smaller gain of glory derived from Greek verses than from Latin ones, he is greatly mistaken, because Greek poetry is read among all nations. Latin is confined to its own natural limits, which are narrow enough. Wherefore, if those achievements which we have performed are limited only by the bounds of the whole world, we ought to desire that, wherever our vigor and our arms have penetrated, our glory and our fame should likewise extend. Because, as this is always an ample reward for those people whose achievements are the subject of writings, so especially is it the greatest inducement to encounter labors and dangers to all men who fight for themselves for the sake of glory. How many historians of his exploits is Alexander the Great said to have had with him; and he, when standing on Cape Sigeum at the grave of Achilles, said, “O happy youth, to find Homer as the panegyrist of your glory!” And he said the truth; for, if the Iliad had not existed, the same tomb which covered his body would have also buried his renown.
Pro Archia Poeta Oratio, Cicero / In Behalf of Archias the Poet, Cicero
Centuries before Cicero’s teacher the poet Archias, another man by the same name, the semi-mythical person Archias of Corinth/Αρχίας ο Κορίνθιος, was a citizen of Corinth, in the Peloponnese. He was said to have led a colonial expedition of fellow Corinthian colonists to Cicily/Σικελία and he thus became the founder of the city of Syracuse/Συρακούσαι, circa 734 or 733 BC.
Τὰς δὲ Συρακούσσας Ἀρχίας μὲν ἔκτισεν ἐκ Κο ρίνθου πλεύσας.
As for Syracuse, Archias built them, having sailed from Corinth.
Στράβων, Γεωγραφία/Strabo, Geography, 6.2.4
For the Greek colonists of Cicily having as a leader a man named Archias, was actually quite appropriate, for it signified a new beginning for them, in their new life in their new land, beyond the Ionian Sea. I will explain:
Everything at some point has to have a beginning. Τhe word “beginning” in Greek is called Αrchê / Ἀρχή.
Ἐν ἀρχῇ ἦν ὁ Λόγος καί ὁ Λόγος ἦν πρός τόν Θεόν καί Θεός ἦν ὁ Λόγος· οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ
En archê een o Logos kai o Logos een pros ton Theon kai Theos een o Logos; outos een en archê pros ton Theon.]
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. John 1:1
This is the archê/ἀρχή of
The Jews of Hellenistic Alexandria had forgotten their Hebrew, and (like American Jews today who speak only English, with bare minimal knowledge of Hebrew), they only spoke Greek Koine. To accommodate his Jewish subjects, Ptolemaios II Philadelphos / Πτολεμαίος Β’ ο Φιλάδελφος (309-246 BC) ordered a translation to be undertaken of the sacred bible of the Jews into Koine Greek, at the library of Alexandria. It became known as the translation of the 0′, the Greek numeral for the 70, for the number of the scholars who worked on it. This is how it begins:
1᾽Εν ἀρχῇ ἐποίησεν ὁ ϑεὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν.
En archê epoiesen o Theos ton ouranon kai ten gen.]
1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
Archê, is the source, the beginning, the starting point. And since everything has to have its own beginning, even archê/ἀρχή had its own archê: it started most probably as a humble Indo-European word: *h4erh2os, which meant the border, the line, the limit. Incidentally, if you were an Indo-European farmer, standing by your field, *h4erh2os would be the beginning of the boundary of your field and *termn would be the other end of it, the limit of your property. A Latin speaking Roman farmer would call that end terminus, and a Greek farmer would call this part of the field’s border the archê/ἀρχή and the end of his property he would call it the terma/τέρμα. The politician’s dreaded term santorinilimits come from this terminal word, and so is the term paper that college students have to write. And in modern Greek, the goalkeeper is called termatophylacas, the phylacas/φύλακας/guard of the terma/τέρμα, the net at the end of the field. But that is the end and we are still at the beginning: archê. If you were the owner of the land from here to there, you were the Archon/Ἄρχων of that property, the one in control. Archo/Ἄρχω, the verb, in Greek means:
I. a. of time: to begin, to make a beginning of a thing
b. to begin from or with
c. to make preparations
d. to show the way to someone
II. a. to rule to be a leader
b. passively Archomai/Ἄρχoμαι: to be ruled, under
Consequently, Archon/Ἄρχων in different circumstanc
In other words, the prefix Arche-/Ἀρχε- and the prefix Archi-/Ἀρχι-
Ἀρχιτέκτων/Architecton is the “master builder”, Ἀρχιερέυς/Archiereus is the “chief priest”, Ἀρχιμανδρίτης/ Archimandrites is the “chief shepherd”, Ἀρχιεπίσκοπος/Archiepiskopos is the “leader of the επισκοποι/episkopoi, the bishops,”, Ἀρχηγός/Archegos is the “master guide”, th leader, Ἀρχάγγελος/Archangelos is the “leader of the messangers”, the master of all Angels, Ἀρχικυβερνήτης/Archikybernetes is the “supreme governor”, or the chief pilot of a ship, Ἀρχιπέλαγος/Archipelagos is the “great, unrestricted, sea”, Ἀρχἐλαος/Archelaos is “the leader of the people in arms”.
On the other hand, Ἀρχηγενής/Archigenes is the “one causing the beginning or origin of something”, Ἀ
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