Books in Greek education prior to 1936 about Macedonia

Another lie used by propagandists of FYROM is the alledged association in Greek education, of ancient Macedonians as Greeks Only After 1912. These lies are being exposed by the following books and references found in Greek history books from 19th century.

 A divine mystical plan at the beginning of which the greatness of the Greek genius became universal; and by the unaniums wish of all people he, albeit a human, was worshiped like a god. The plan culminated in the Incarnation, to the great delight of earthly creatures and the rejoicing of the heavens.

Zampelios 1852:45

Book of Theagenes LivadasStoiheia Genikis Istorias” (Tergeste 1867).

Inside this book there are many references to the unification of Greeks by Philip of Macedon, without as the author mentions, disruption of anyone’s autonomy. Moreover there are lots of references to Alexander’s administrative policies and his desire to “spread Greek civilization to Asians“.

In his “Istoria tou Ellinikou Ethnous” (Athens 1853), Konstantinos Paparigopoulos, follows the views of Droysen and underlines “Macedonians even if they arent mentioned in the earliest ancient years of Greek history, they were Greeks!“. About Philip of Macedon, he mentions “his aim wasnt to be despot of Greece but only to unite the greek city-states, in order to undertake the expedition against Persians and conquer this great kingdom, taking this way revenge“. Alexander is being called “King of Greeks“, and he adds “his aim was not only to subdue Asia, but to spread to Asia’s inhabitants, all the great things Greeks got“.

We are going now to 3 books about ancient Greek history which were part of Greek education during High school and primary school.

1. “Istoria ton arxaiwn Anatolikwn Ethnwn kai tou Ellinikou Ethnous mexri tin Romaiki kataktisi” (Athens 1888) by George Tsagres for A’, B’ of high school.

2. “Istoria tis Arxaias Elladas” (Athens 1896) by Bl. Skordelis and Ar. Kourtides for C’ of Primary school

3. “Istoria tis Arxaias Elladas, Biografies” (Constantinople 1889) of P. Paparrousis.

 All these books refer to the greekness of ancient Macedonians, in city-state’s  decline, to the plans of Philip II for union of Greeks, in the education of Alexander, his impressive conquests, his role as spreading Greek civilization to the Asians and finally his death.

In books about Local history of Greek education in 19th -20th centuries, we can find two general histories about Macedonia and a Biography of Alexander the Great.

1. “Epitomos istoria tis Makedonias (apo ton arhaiotaton xronon mexri tis Tourkokratias” (Athens 1879) for primary Greek schools, by Margaritis Dimitsas.

2. “Istoria tis Makedonias, Teuxos A'” (Athens 1935) for E’ grade of Primary school, by K. L. Lagoumitzakis.

3. “Megas Alexandros” (Athens 1914) for E’ of Primary School, by Pantelis Oikonomos.

Inside there are many references like for the greekness of ancient Macedonians and Philip’s aim to unite Greeks to “punish” Persians. Pantelis Oikonomos writes “ I praise the Lord because he honoured me to see my dream coming true and my nation to achieve again great things and liberate my brothers who were for centuries under occupation*” (*Macedonia)

A couple more literary works about Alexander the great from Greek Intellectuals during 19th century were found in:

“Bios, prakseis kai katorthomata tou Megalou Alexandrou tou Makedonos” Dionysios Pyrrhos (Athens, 1846)

The author illustrates brilliantly the achievements of Alexander the great. Among others we find inside “Greek youths, especially the Macedonians, having as compatriot such a world hero”.

Special Studies of K. Asopios (1858)

“Istoria Alexandrou tou Megalou” – Konstantinos Frearites (1859)

For Frearites “Alexander is the Greek hero“.

Istoria tou Ellinikou Ethnous”, Paparigopoulos (1865)

History of Macedonia of M. Dimitsas (1874)

As well works about Alexander and ancient Macedonians from:

G Papageorgiou (1880)

G.Lampises (1882-3)

Th. Benizelos (1884)

S. Lampros (1888)

T. Evaggelides (1893)

G. Soteriades (1894)

1. A large poem of Georgios Tertsetis titled “Oi gamoi tou Mega Alexandrou” Athena 1856)

2. The work of Leon Melas “Gerostathis” (Athena 1858)