Persian Testimonies about ancient Macedonian Ethnicity

Figure 1

1. Yauna Takabara

A Persian inscription dating from 513 BCE records the European peoples who were, at that date, subject to the Great King. One of these people is described as Yauna Takabara, meaning ‘Ionians whose head-dress is like a shield. The Persians, like other eastern peoples of antiquity, are known to have applied the term ‘Ionians’ to all Greeks; on the other hand the head-dress resembling a shield has been rightly recognized as that of depicted on Macedonian coins. According to Cambridge Ancient History Vol 4 The Greek-speaking people with the shield-like hat were the Macedones, renowned for wearing the sun-hat, as Alexander I did on his fine coins from 478 B.C (look above). The Greek-speaking citizens of the colonial city states on the seaboard were not mentioned; nor did they wear a sun-hat.”


 A Snap-shot pick from the film Alexander :


Photo by Andrew


2. The Persian story of ZULQARNEEN

Persian Texts in Translation

Packard Humanities Institute – Persian Literature in Translation

It has been mentioned above that, according to the majority of historians, there were no other prophets sent between Nϋh and Ebrahim, except Hϋd and Sβlah. Some of the ancients, however, tell us that the greater Zulqarneen had been honoured after Sβlah and before Ebrahim with the exalted dignity of ambassadorship and prophecy; and Mujβhad has informed us after A’bdullah Bin O’mar—u. w. b., etc.—that the greater Zulqarneen was one of the prophets sent by God, and that the reason for the truth of this assertion is, because the glorious Lord of unity had honoured him with the allocution, ‘O Zulqar*neen!’* which cannot be addressed except to the perfect essences and virtuous spirits of prophets, u. w. b. p. According to the most correct tradition Zulqarneen was not Alexander the Grecian, whose biography is recorded in the history of the kings of Persia, because his genealogy ascends to Yβfuth the son of Nϋh, whereas Alexander the Greek is one of the descendants of A’yss the son of Esahβq, of the children of Sβm the son of Nϋh. This view has been adopted by commentators, such as I’mβd-ud-din Bin Kathir in his book entitled ‘Bedβyet wa Nuhβyet,’ and arguments have been adduced in support of the truth of his having been a prophet. Sanβn Bin Thβbut Allashbuhi has related in his work entitled ‘Jβmi’ that Zulqarneen had been sent after Sβlah, and that he lived in Europe, possessed of great power and an extensive kingdom, and was constantly engaged in waging wars against infidels, until his noble disposition impelled him to visit various cities and countries. He first undertook an expedition to the West, and, as infidels dwelt there who would not be admonished by his words, nor desist from idolatry, infidelity and sinful acts, he sojourned one year among them, and attacked and exterminated the majority of them with his merciless scimitar. After having established a Musalmβn colony in that country, he went to Jerusalem and remained there for some time; then he turned towards the East, and journeyed till he approached the habitations of Yajϋj and Majϋj.* Zulqarneen there entered a city which contained a large population, governed by a noble, affable and hand*some king, who hastened to meet Zulqarneen; as soon as he was informed of his approach, he brought offerings of nice and acceptable presents, and became a partaker in the obedience to the Lord of both worlds.* Zulqarneen looked at the sovereign and the people of that country with mercy, and rejoiced them with his favours. As they had been for a long time oppressed and injured by Yajϋj and Majϋj, and were unable to resist them, they were glad to inform Zulqarneen of all this, who, trusting in divine grace, made the necessary preparations to remove the oppression and tyranny of Yajϋj and Majϋj.

3. Bahram Yasht

If we search at Zand-i Vohuman Yasht” CHAPTER 3, 34

We will find the following passage.

‘And then Mihr of the vast cattle-pastures cries thus: “Of these nine thousand years’ support, which during its beginning produced Dahak [Zohak] of evil religion, Frasiyav of Tur, and Alexander the Ruman, the period of one thousand years of those leather-belted demons with disheveled hair is a more than moderate reign to produce

Zand-i Vohuman Yasht, chapter 3

Lets see now what Prof. S. Eddy from University of Nebraska has to tell us about the above passage.

it must follow that at least a part of the Bahman Yasht, the detailed picture of the apocalyptic conditions brought about by a successful invasion of Iran by foreigners, existed before the time of Ardashir I. But the Bahman Yasht must therefore also have said something of the invasion. In fact it does, and twice names its leader as Alexander the Great. He was not at all a threat to Sassanid prophets living more than half a millennium after his death. The name Alexander, then, is further evidence of Hellenistic date. He is called “Destroyer of the Religion” and “Invader.” The first epithet is a parallel to the tradition preserved in the Dinkard, the second to the Sibylline Oracle. Furthermore, the rank and file of the aggressors are once identified as Yunan, which is ancient Near Eastern usage for “Greeks,” derived from the word for “Ionians.” This word is a Pahlevi vocalization equivalent to Old Persian Yaunā , Elamite Iauna, Hebrew Yāwān, and Hindu Yavanā. Sassanid writers, however, usually referred to Greeks as Rūmi.It is true that the Bahman Yasht sometimes says that the invaders come from Rum. That is Sassanid editing. It sometimes indicates that they are Muslims. That is post-Sassanid editing. The apocalypse normally refers to them by the cryptic title, “The Demons with Dishevelled Hair of the Race of Wrath.” This, from the old Persian point of view, was a good characterization”

 How come that Alexander the Great and ancient Macedonians are considered as Greeks in the Persian folk tradition?Have our Scopian friends any explanation.In the Persian poem ” Salaman and Absal”,written in 15th century by Nur ad-Din Abd ar-Rahman Jami
Alexander is clearly described as Greek:


Ancient Persian Zoroastrian texts verified what we and the ancient people already know. Alexander the Great was Greek!!!

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