The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

A Challenge to the Macedonism of the Slavs

© Marcus A. Templar, 2008.

  • Abstract and Acknowledgement
  • Chapter 1. What is all about? Regional Stability and Security
  • Chapter 2. Ancient Macedonia and its people
  • Chapter 3. Slavs: New Invaders in Byzantium
  • Chapter 4. Ilinden Uprising: A “Macedonian” or a Bulgarian Act?
  • Chapter 5. The Transmutation of a Slav People to Macedonians
  • Chapter 6. The Establishment of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
  • Chapter 7. Nationalism and Stability
  • Conclusion
  • Appendix
  • Bibliography
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

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    9 Aristophanes, Clouds 492 and Birds 1573; Plato, Menexenus 245c-d; Thucydides, VIII.98; Xenophon Anabasis 5.4, 34; Aristotle Politics 1.2,4.

    10 E. Badian, Studies in the History of Art: Macedonia And Greece in Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Times, Greeks and Macedonians, Vol 10.

    11 Andre Gerolymatos, Espionage and Treason (Amsterdam, Gieben 1986), 76.

    12 Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 138-139.

    13 Aeschines, On the Embassy, 141.

    14 Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, III, 94.

    15 R. Malcom Errington, A History of Macedonia, Translated by Catherine Errington (Berkeley, Univerisity of California Press, 1990), 4.

    16 Urlich Wilcken, Alexander the Great (New York, Norton, 1967), 23.

    17 Herodotus, Histories, VIII, 43.

    18 Maria Nystazopoulou – Pelekidou, The Macedonian Question: A Historical Review, Translated by Ilias Kyzirakos (Corfu, Ionian University), 1988, http://www.hri.org/docs/macque/, accessed 12 March 2008.

    19 Also Makedni. The word Macedonia derives from the Doric and Aeolic dialects word mākos meaning length, in humans and mountains means height. In Attic dialect and Modern Greek the same word is mēkos. Compare to Homer Odyssey book VII, 106. Homer’s Greek was mostly Ionic, but included Aeolic words and syntax. It was natural for him to mix both dialects since Smyrna (present day Izmir, Turkey) his most probable birthplace was inhabited by the Aeolian Greeks who lost it later to the Ionian Greeks. Smyrna was located on the borders between the Asia Minor Aeolians and Ionians.

    20 Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, II, 99.

    21 Latin the same town is called Dium.

    22 The word Zeus exists in the Greek literature under a number of different but related names: Zeus, Deus, Sdeus, Zēs, Zas, Dan, Dēn, Tēn, Tan, Tiēn and Dis. Compare to the Indian god of the Heavens Dyaus pitar meaning “father God.” Thus, Dion means the City of Zeus or in essence the City of God.

    23 Herodotus, Histories, I, 58.

    24 Polybius XXVIII, 8, 9.

    25 For a list of ancient Macedonians participating in the Olympic games (see Appendix A).

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    30 “Bryges on the central Balkans in the 2nd and 1st millennium BC,” Arheologija ( Skopje 1995).

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    32 Vera Bitrakova-Grozdanova, Hellenistic Monuments in S.R.Macedonia (Skopje, 1987), 130.

    33 Vera Bitrakova-Grozdanova, Hellenistic Monuments in S.R.Macedonia (Skopje, 1987), 103.

    34 Vera Bitrakova-Grozdanova, Hellenistic Monuments in S.R.Macedonia, (Skopje,1987), 134.

    35 Lilcic,Viktor, Building ceramics in the Republic of Macedonia during the Roman Period: Scupi, Stobi, Heraclea Lynkestis, Styberra, (Skopje, 1996), 120.

    36 Ivan Mikulčić, Pelagonija, (Skopje, 1966), 2.

    37 Ivan Mikulčić, Pelagonija (Skopje, 1966), 4.

    38 “Guide to the archaeological exhibition” (Skopje, 1996), 54.

    39 Aristotle’s Works, passim.

    40 Wilcken, Alexander the Great (New York: Norton, 1967), 22.

    41 Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, II, 99.

    42 Hammond, The Macedonian State (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 390.

    43 Eugene Borza, Makedonika, Ethnicity and Cultural Policy at Alexander’s Court (Claremont: Regina Books), 149-58.

    44 Eugene Borza, Makedonika, “Ethnicity and Cultural Policy at Alexander’s Court,” 149-58.

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    47 Yugoslavian Military Encyclopedia, Ed. 1974, s.v. .Makedonija.

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    49 Yugoslavian Military Encyclopedia, Ed. 1974, s.v. .Makedonija.

    50 Douglas Dakin, The Greek Struggle in Macedonia 1897-1915, (Thessaloniki, Institute for Balkan Studies, 1966), 92 – 106.

    51 This Icon is by the hand of Nicholas Papas; Available from http://www.comeandseeicons.com/ papas.htm, accessed 20 November 2007. Used by written permission.

    52 Embassy of Bulgaria May 10, 2004, New Delhi, India. Internet. http://www.bulgariaembindia.com/news_Constantine_methodius.htm, accessed 20 November 2007.

    53 Ivan Lazaroff, Plamen Pavloff, Kratka istoriya na bŭlgarskiya narod, Faculty of History (Veliko Tŭrnovo, Bulgaria, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, 1963), 36-38.

    54 Oskar Halecki, “Moravian State and the Apostles of the Slavs,” Borderlands of Western Civilization, A History of East Central Europe (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1952).

    55 Petar Djordic, Istorjia Srpske Ćirilice (Beograd), 11.

    56 Istorija za 10th klas (Sofija: Prosveta, 1991), 44 – 48.

    57 The nationality of the Apostles to the Slavs has been treated thoroughly with a quotation from the sources by Prof. Ant.-Aem. Tachiaos, The nationality of Cyril and Methodius according to the Slavic historical sources and evidences, Cyril and Methodius, Festive Volume, vol. II, 83-132. See also D. A. Zakythinos, “Constantine the Philosopher and the Formation of the Slavic languages,” Proceedings of the Academy of Athens 45 (1970)], 59-77. Compare to I. Karayannopoulos, “The Historical Framework of the Work of the Apostles of the Slavs”, Cyril and Methodius, Festive Volume, vol. I, 139-151.

    58 Kostas Biris, Αρβανίτες, οι Δωριείς του νεώτερου Ελληνισμού: H ιστορία των Ελλήνων Αρβανιτών. (Athens 1960).

    59 Karl Hopf, The Slavs in Greece (Athens: Livanis, 1995).

    60 Karl Hopf, The Slavs in Greece (Athens: Livanis, 1995).

    62 Pope Leo XIII, Encyclical, September 30, 1880.

    63 Tachiaos, Antonios-Aemilios. Kyrillos kai Methodius (Thessaloniki: Kyriakides, 1992).

    64 by I. Anastasiou, “Constantine’s Life” Scientific Year-book of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Thessaloniki 12 (1968), 126, 138.

    65 Alexander A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire: Vol. 1, Madison, University of Winsconsin (1980), 301.

    66 John Skylitzes, Synopsis Historion, ed. Thurn (Madrid: Biblioteca Nacional), 348-9. http://www.geocities.com/nbulgaria/bulgaria/kleidion.htm, accessed April 01, 2008.

    67 Stelian Brezeanu, O istorie a Imperiului Bizantin (Bucharest, 1981), 110.

    68 I. Goshev, Самуилов натпис, 993. г . Старобългарски глаголически и кирилски надписи от IX и X в. (София, 1961).

    69 Thomas Lysaght, A Selection of Ancient Slav Literary Monuments, (Vienna, E. Bevcar, 1982). Translated text copied as published.

    70 Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07. s.v. Stephen Dushan, http://bartleby.net/65/st/StphnDs.html

    71 By Adrianople the revolutionaries meant Thrace.

    72 Duncan M. Perry, The Politics of Terror- The Macedonian Liberation Movements 1893-1903, 19.

    73 Goce Delchev (Гоце Делчев), Писма и други материали, Издирил и подготвил за печат Дино Кьосев (Gotse Delchev, Letters and Other Materials, Researched and Prepared for Publication by Dino Kyosev, Sofia, 1967), 183.

    74 D. Zografski, Д. Зографски, Извештаи од 1903—1904 година на австриските представници во Македониjа, (D.Zografski, Reports of the Austrian Representatives in Macedonia 1903-1904 (Skopje: n.p, 1955), 251-252.

    75 Loring Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict : Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World (Princeton U.P., 1995), 64.

    76 Giorgio Nurigianni, The Macedonian Genius Through the Centuries (London: David Harvey Publishers, 1972).

    77 Nikolaos Zahariadis, “Nationalism and Small State Foreign Policy: The Greek Response to the Macedonian Issue,” Political Science Quarterly, 109 (4), 1994, 64, 7.

    78 John Foster Fraser - Pictures from the Balkans, 20.

    79 Gaston Routier, La Question Macedonienne (Paris: 1903), 50-51.

    80 Douglas Dakin, The Greek Struggle in Macedonia 1897-1915 (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1966), 2 ft. 1.

    81 N. H. Blaisford, Macedonia: Its races and their future (London: Methuen, 1906), 111 – 171.

    82 The actual name of the organization was “The Young Ottomans.”

    83 28 July 1913 under the Old Calendar.

    84 International Commission, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Report on Macedonia (Endowment Washington, D.C. 1914), http://www.kroraina.com/knigi/ en/carnegie/, accessed April 08, 2008.

    85 N. H. Blaisford, Macedonia: Its races and their future (London, Methuen, 1906), passim.

    86 R. G. D. Laffan, The Serbs: Guardian of the Gate (New York, Dorset Press, 1917), 18.

    87 Fani Dimitriou – Papazoglou, interview by author, Thessaloniki, 1971.

    88 Resolution, Academy of Athens, Δημόσια τοποθέτηση της Ακαδημίας Αθηνών για το Μακεδονικό ζήτημα (Public Position of the Academy of Athens regarding the Macedonian Issue), 28 March 2008. Translation is mine.

    89 Fani Dimitriou – Papazoglou, interview by author, Thessaloniki, 1971.

    90 Historical Archive of Macedonia/General Administration of Macedonia, file 79, Department of Special Security to Police Headquarters in Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 01 March 1914; ibid: Police Headquarters to Public Prosecutor’s Office of the First Instance, Thessaloniki, 03 March 1914; ibid: Gen. Adm. Mac. to Police Headquarters in Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 25 April 1914; ibid: Gen. Adm. Mac. to Supreme Command of the Gendarmerie of Macedonia , Thessaloniki, 30 April 1914.

    91 Joseph S. Roucek, Balkan Politics, International Relations in No Man’s Land (Greenwood Press, Westport, 1948), 150.

    92 Article VI of the Peace Treaty of Bucharest.

    93 Binbaşı M. Nasrullah, Kolagaşı M. Rüdü, Mülazim M. Eref, Osmanlı Atlası (Osmanlı Arastımaralı Vakfı, İstanbul 2003).

    94 The term Politics of Mutation appears in Kofos’ The Macedonian Question: The Politics of Mutation (see below).

    95 Ivan Mihailov, Macedonia: A Switzerland in the Balkans (St Louis, 1950) in Evangelos Kofos, The Macedonian Question: The Politics of Mutation, (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1987), 2.

    96 Douglas Dakin, The Greek Struggle in Macedonia 1897-1913 (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1966), 47.

    97 Douglas Dakin, The Greek Struggle in Macedonia 1897-1913 (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1966), 47 f. 10.

    98 Otečestven Vestnik (Sofia daily), June 19, 1991.

    99 Evangelos Kofos, The Macedonian Question: The Politics of Mutation, (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1987), 3.

    100 Evangelos Kofos, The Macedonian Question: The Politics of Mutation, (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1987), 3.

    101 Ch. Papastathis, L’autocephalie de I’Eglise de la Macedoine Yugoslave (Balkan Studies VII, 1968), 151-154; Ath. Angelopoulos, To Aftokephalon tis “Makedonikis” Orthodoxou Ekklisias epi ti Vasei ton Apofaseon tis Ektaktou Synodou tis Ierarchias tis Servikis Ortnodoxou Ekklisias (Thessaloniki: 1968); also, Palmer and King, op. cit, 165-173, in Evangelos Kofos, The Macedonian Question: The Politics of Mutation, (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1987), 4.

    102 Dragan Taskovski, Radjanjelo na Makedonskata Nacija (Skopje: 1967) ; Kon Etnogenezeta na Makedonskiot Narod (Skopje: 1974). For a Bulgarian critical appraisal: Dimitar Kosev, Revisionisticeski Falsifikacii na Balgarska Istorija v Skopskite Istorici: Istoriceski Pregled (Sofia: 1959), 15-44. For a Greek appraisal: Kofos, I Makedonia …• op. cit .• and by the same author, paper on O Makedonikos Agonas sti Yugoslaviki Istoriografia, in the Annals of a Symposium on the Macedonian Struggle, held in Thessaloniki, November 1984. A penetrating analysis in Stefan Troebst, Die bulgarisch-jugoslawische Kontroverse um Makedonien. 1967-1982 (Munchen: 1983), 41-92 and 151-182, in Evangelos Kofos, The Macedonian Question: The Politics of Mutation, (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1987), 4.

    103 In a speech at Skopje on October 11, 1945, Tito declared: “We have never refused the right of the Macedonian people to be united. We will never renounce this right. This is our principle” in Theoph. Papakonstantinou, Political Education (Kabanas, Athens, 1970), 492- 493.

    104 Regardless the Interim Agreement the government of Skopje does not recognize Greek sovereignty over the Greek part of Macedonia, which they call Aegean. In the last EU election, the Slavic party received about 6,000 votes out of 8.5 million voters or 0.00071.

    105 The Bulgarians have repeatedly complained about the anti-Bulgarian elements of the mutation policy applied in the S.R. Macedonia. See the publication of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Makedonskiot Vapros (Sofia: 1968) and the pamphlet of the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, For all-round development of Bulgaro- Yugoslav relations (Sofia: 1978).

    106 Details in Palmer and King, op. cit., chapter “Macedonian nationalism under Yugoslav Communism,” 133-183.

    107 Joseph S. Roucek, Balkan Politics. International Relations in no man’s land (Westport: Greenwood Press ,1948), 161; Milan Ristović, A long Journey Home (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 2000), 9.

    108 Joseph S. Roucek, Balkan Politics. International Relations in no man’s land (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1948), 161-166.

    109 U.S State Department, Foreign Relations Vol. VIII, Circular Airgram, Washington D.C. (868.014/26 Dec. 1944).

    110 Theoph. Papakonstantinou, Political Education (Athens: Kabanas, 1970), 451.

    111 From Turkish yeniçeri, from yeni new + çeri soldier; a soldier of an elite corps of Turkish troops organized in the 14th century and abolished in 1826.

    112 Theoph. Papakonstantinou, Political Education (Athens: Kabanas, 1970), 452 - 454.

    113 Ioannis Bougas, Η Φωνή της Ειρήνης (Thessaloniki: Erodios, 2006).

    114 “Innocent’s Day,” Time, January 09, 1950, passim.

    115 AVNOJ stands for antifašističko veće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije meaning National Antifascist Liberation Council of Yugoslavia.

    116 Evangelos Kofos, The Macedonian Question: The Politics of Mutation (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1987), 1-16.

    117 West Balkan Research University, Institution and Company Directory http://www.westbalkanresearch.net/doks/researchlandscapeoverview_fyrom.pdf

    118 Republic of Macedonia, Criminal Code, http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/ public/documents/ UNTC/UNPAN016120.pdf, accessed 7 February 2008.

    119 Sentencing of Archbishop Jovan Endangers Fyrom’s Negotiations With The European Union, http://freearchbishop.com/?p=4, accessed 7 February 2008.

    120 The Austrian Parliament, History of Parliamentarism in Austria, Development of Austrian Parliamentarism:

    “From Monarchy to Republic;” “The Republic and the Parliamentary System;” “Towards a Federal Constitution.”

    http://www.parlament.gv.at/EN/AP/PA/TURN/GESCH_5/Gesch5_MonarchyRepublic-E_Portal.shtml http://www.parlament.gv.at/EN/AP/PA/TURN/GESCH_6/Gesch6_Republic-E_Portal.shtml

    http://www.parlament.gv.at/EN/AP/PA/TURN/GESCH_7/Gesch7_TowardsFederalConst-E_Portal.shtml

    121 Richards J. Heuer, Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, Chapter 6 (Keeping an Open Mind), Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1999. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/index.html

    122 Vanče Stojčev, Military History of Macedonia – Maps, (Skopje: Military Academy ‘General Mihailo Apostolski’ 2004), http://www.militaryhistory.com.mk, accessed June 25, 2007.

    123 Lieutenant Commander, Richard D. Chenette, USN, “The Argentine Seizure of the Malvinas (Falkland) Islands: History and Diplomacy” Marine Corps Command and Staff College, Marine Corps Development and Education Command, (Quantico, May 04, 1987). http://www.globalsecurity.org/ military/library/report/1987/CDR.htm.

    124 Internal Macedonian Revolutionary organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity.

    125 Free Republic, “Macedonians, Moldovans Rush to Get Bulgarian Citizenship for EU Perks,” August 13, 2006. http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1683034/posts, accessed August 31, 2007; Novinite, Sofia News Agency, “Bulgarian Passports “Suicidal” for Macedonia.” February 8, 2008.

    http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=90197, accessed February 9, 2008.

    126 Ljubco Georgievski “Geographic definition in the name does not mean loss of identity,” FOCUS News Agency, Sofia, Bulgaria (March 31, 2008). http://www.focus-fen.net/?id=f1583, accessed 02 April 2008. Translation is mine.

    127 Richard Lewis Jasnow, James G. Keenan, and George R. Hughes, Hawara Papyri: Demotic and Greek Texts from an Egyptian Family Archive in the Fayum (Fourth to Third Century B.C.). (University of Chicago Oriental Institute Publications, 1997), passim; Jean-Pierre Mahé, “Preliminary Remarks on the Demotic ‘Book of Thoth’ and the Greek Hermetica,” Vigiliae Christianae, 50, 4 (1996), 353-363; E. A. Wallis Budge, The Rosetta Stone Dover Publications 1989), Passim; The British Museum, “The Rosetta Stone, From Fort St Julien, el-Rashid (Rosetta), Egypt Ptolemaic Period, 196 BC.” http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rosetta_stone.aspx, accessed April 20, 2008; The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, The Chicago Demotic Dictionary (CDD). http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/projects/dem/, accessed April 20, 2008; John Baines, “Literacy and Ancient Egyptian Society,” Man, New Series, 18, 3 (Sep., 1983), 572-599;

    128 For similar U.S. Congressional Resolutions see Appendices L and M.

    129 Xhelal Neziri, “State of Citizens With Dual Citizenship,” Fakti, Skopje (April 04, 2008).

    EUP20080404181002.

    130 “The Macedonian Economy, Past and Present,” MI-AN Publishing. http://www.unet.com.mk/ mian/eco.htm, accessed February 07, 2008.

    131 Binbaşı M. Narsullah and others, Osmanlı Atlası: XX Yüzyıl Başları (İstanbul: Osmanlı Araştırmaları Vakfı Yayınları, 2003), 23 – 29.

    132 Yugoslavian Military Encyclopedia, Ed. 1974, s.v. .Makedonija.

    133 Joseph Stalin, The Nation, in Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith, (New York: 1994), 20.

    134 Ernest Renan, Qu’est-ce qu’une nation? (What is a Nation?) in Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith, (New York: 1994), 17.

    135 Max Weber, The Nation, in Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith, (New York: 1994), 21-25.

    136 Elie Kedourie, Nationalism and self-determination in Nationalism, edited by John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith, (New York: 1994, 49.

    137 James G. Kellas, The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity (London: MacMillan, 1993), 20.

    138 Ivan Banac, The National Questionin Yugoslavia. Origins History Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University, 1984), 23.

    139 James G. Kellas, The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity (London: MacMillan, 1993), 28.

    140 Speech by former Minister of Macedonia -Thrace N. Martis at the Athens War Museum, January 10, 2005.

    141 PDSh leader Arben Xhaferi, interview by Vasil S. Sotirov; in Skopje, date not given: “Macedonia Must Stop Stealing History,” 24 Chasa, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 30, 2004, 34.

    142 Evangelos Kofos, Nationalism and Communism in Macedonia (New Rochelle: Caratzas, 1993), notes to Appendix III, Endnote 64, 336.

    143 Dimitar Čulev, “Neo-Methods,” Nova Makedonija, Skopje, October 04, 1997. Translation is mine.

    144 Titus Livius, History of Rome, XXXI, XXIX, Loeb Publishers “The Aetolians, the Acarnanians, the Macedonians, men of the same speech, are united or disunited by trivial causes that arise from time to time.”

    145 Livy, History of Rome, b. XLV, XXIX, Loeb Publishers.

    146 Jeffrey T. Bergner, Letter of Assistant Secretary for Legislative Affairs, U.S. Department of State to U.S. Senator Barack Obama, March 14, 2006.

    147 Alexandros Mallias, Ambassador of Greece to Washington, letter of response, U.S. Think Tank “Center for American Progress,” 18 march 2008.

    148 United States Senate Resolution 476/2008.

    149 Gregory R. Copley, “The Road to Peace in the Balkans is Played with Bad Intentions,” address to Conference on a Search for the Roadmap to Peace in the Balkans, Pan-Macedonian Association, Washington, DC, 27 June 2007).

    150 Fani Dimitriou-Papazoglou, interview by author, 27 December 1999.

    151 Nikolas Zahariadis, “Nationalism and Communism in Macedonia” by Evangelos Kofos. Book review in Journal of Modern Greek Studies, 13 (2) 1995, 360-362.

    152 Kiro Gligorov, Македонија е сé Што Имаме (Macedonia is All that We Have), Skopje, 2000, 354. Translation is mine. The text in the original language is as follows:

    Па добро … “, ми одговори еден од нив. “Вие зборувавте, ама не ja кажаВте главната работа, не кажавте дека ние сме потомци на Александар Велики. Тoа не може така. Таа kaj нас сега ке се толкува дека ние Македонците сме се откажале од нашето потекло, од нашите предци.” Jac ce мислев што да им кажам, па наjпосле реков: “Знаете што,jас тоа ваше мислен, е и убедуван, е го почитувам, нека си биде, тоа е ваше право. Но, споре~ нашата историографиjа сепак постои едно пошироко убедуван,е мегу македонскнот народ дека ние сме Словени. Доjдени на Балканот во шестиот, во седмиот век, населени на просторот што се викал Македониjа, и оттогаш живееме таму. Дали во нашите жили тече уште по He koja капка крв од античките Македонци, тоа jac не знам, но и да тече, ова е она што преовладува и што го означува идентитетот на нашиот на род. Мегу тоа, не сакам да ве убедувам, штом вие сте на тоа мисле!-Ье, мислете си така, но тоа не треба да го менува вашиот став сп рема Република Македониjа како независна држава.”

    153 Kiro Gligorov, Македонија е сé Што Имаме (Macedonia is All that We Have), Skopje, 2000, 354. Translation is mine.

    154 Border, Symbols, Stability, Citizens’ Movement (Athens, January, 1993), 8.

    155 Fox News, “Anti-Illegal Immigration Group Calls for ‘Absolut’ Vodka Boycott,” April 8, 2008. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,348290,00.html accessed April 9, 2008.; Mark Stevenson, “Vodka-Maker Absolut Apologizes for Ads,” Associated Press, 7 April 2008. <http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5je6CYV2MW9sNYNOAOhc1qskVT7pwD8VTPELO3>, accessed 11 April 2008.

    156 Dora Bakoyanni, Foreign Minister of Greece, “A Compromise Is No Humiliation,” interview by Christiane Schloetzer, Munich Sueddeutsche Zeitung 17 Mar 2008, 8

    157 Charles Warren Hostler, The Turks of Central Asia (Praeger, 1993), 14.

    158 Enver Imamovic, “O Elementima Političkog Organiziranja Iliskih Zajednica,” Prilozi (30, Sarajevo, 2001), 25-41.

    159 Plutarch, Alexander, 47, 6. Compare to honorary degrees some American universities award the Litt.D. (Doctor of Letters), the L.H.D. (Doctor of Humane Letters).

    160 Plutarch, Alexander, 69, 4.

    161 Dimitris N. Alexandrou, Kalash, the Greeks in the Himalaya, 9th Ed. (Thessaloniki: Erodios, 1993).

    162 George Papavizas, “Claiming Macedonia” (Jefferson: McFarland, 2006) 161-173.

    163 Eugene Borza, In the Shadow of Olympus (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), 93.

    164 Carl Darling Buck, “The Interrelations of the Greek Dialects,” Classical Philology (July 1907, 2, 3), 241-276.

    165 Carl Darling Buck, “The Interrelations of the Greek Dialects,” Classical Philology (July 1907, 2, 3), 241-276.

    166 Polybius XXVIII, 8, 9; also IX, 37,7 - To the Achaeans and the Macedonians belonging to the same race, and to Philip, their leader; IV, 9 and VII, 9, 3.

    167 Nokolaos K. Martis, The Falsification of Macedonian History (Euroekdotiki, Athens, 1983), 33.

    168 Theopompus, in F.H.G. fr. 30, 1, 283.

    169 Pausanias, Description of Greece 7.25.12.

    170 Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, VII, 9, 10.

    171 Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, VII, 8-11.

    172 Polybius IV 4, 5; Eustathius 1398; Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, VII 22; cf. Sturz, De dialecto Macedonika et Alexandrina (Leipsig: 1808), 41.

    173 Literal translation is “shield-hat Ionians” with Ionians rendering Greeks in general.

    174 Hammond, The Macedonian State (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 13.

    175 Herodotus, Histories, book V, 20-22.

    176 Ivo Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origin, History, Politics (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984); Us and the Others: Greece’s Image in the Press and the FYROM Educational System In Athens—Skopje, Seven Years of Symbiosis (1995)—2K12 , eds. E. Kofos and V. Viasides (Athens: Ekthoseis Papazisi, 2003), 295—366.

    177 Foreign Information Service Daily Report, Eastern Europe, February 26, 1992, 35.

    178 Toronto Star, March 15, 1992.

    179 Ljubica Achevska, Ambassador of the FYROM to USA, speech on the Balkans, Washnigton, DC, January 22, 1999.

    180 Gyordan Veselinov, FYROM’S Ambassador to Canada, interview by Ottawa Citizen, Ottawa, Ontario, February 24, 1999.

    181 Slobodan Časule, Foreign Minister of the FYROM, interview by Utrinski Vesnik , Skopje, December 29, 2001.

    182 Dimitris Gousidis, Burning Balkans, (Thessaloniki: Ianos, 2003), 28. Translation is mine.

    183 Kiro Gligorov, interview by FORUM magazine, Sofia, April 24, 1998.

    184 Smith presents a fine argument on the Conference, R. E. Smith, “The Opposition to Agesilaus’ Foreign Policy 394-371 B.C.” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 2, No. 3 (1954), pp. 274-288.

    185 Aeschines, On the Embassy, 2.32.

    186 Arrian, Anabasis, VII, 9.

    187 British and foreign state papers, 1931 (London: HMSO, 1936), CXXXIV, 1170 - 1192.

    188 Magazine Makedonsko Sonce of Skopje has as its symbol the Sun of Vergina, which the United Nations Security Council deemed as purely ancient Greek symbol. http://www.makedonskosonce.com/, accessed on April 01, 2008.

    189 Xhelal Neziri, “State of Citizens With Dual Citizenship,” Fakti (Skopje, April 01, 2008), 2. EUP20080404181002.

    190 “Basescu: Greece is right to Veto,” Rompress, Bucharest, April 03, 2008. EUP2008043009014.

    191 Viktor Cvetanovski, “Sofia’s Offensive Against Macedonia,” Utrinski Vesnik, (Skopje, April, 03, 2008). EUP20080403049007.

    192 Viktor Cvetanovski, “Sofia’s Offensive Against Macedonia,” Utrinski Vesnik, (Skopje, April 03, 2008). EUP20080403049007

    193 This part is re-printed by permission of Mrs. Nina Gatzoulis, President of the Pan-Macedonian Association of the USA.

    194 Professor Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Assistant Professor, Department of Greek, Latin, & Classical Studies, Bryn Mawr College, PA. http://www.brynmawr.edu/classics/redmonds/csts212w4.html.

    195 MyMacedonia, History. http://www.mymacedonia.net/history/manifesto.htm, accessed June 07, 2008.

    196 Murtar is an Ottoman word meaning convert.

    197 Milan Ristovic, Long Return Home, Children Refugees from Greece in Yugoslavia 1948-1960, (Thessaloniki: Institute for Balkan Studies, 2000), 95.

    198 Dominique Eudes, The Kapetanios. Partisans and Civil War in Greece…1943-1949 (London: Monthly Review, 1972) 317.

    199 UNSC, Resolution 817, 1993 between Greece and the FYROM. http://www.nato.int/Ifor/un/ u930407a.htm, accessed 21 March 2008.

    200 UNSC, Resolution 845, 1993 between Greece and the FYROM. http://www.nato.int/Ifor/un/ u930407a.htm, accessed 21 March 2008.

    201 Original printed in Greek. The text above was translated by Prof. Nina Gatzoulis.

    202 House of Representatives, Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives on the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), 110th Cong., 1st. sess., 2007, H. Resolution 356.

    203 Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, Expressing the sense of the Senate on the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), 110th Cong., 1st sess., 2007, S. Resolution 300.

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