Sources from Kashmir prove Ancient Macedonians were Greeks

Irvan Naveed has written a book review of  “Ancient Greeks in Kashmir” by Iqbal Ahmad.

Mr. Iqbal Ahmad, 51, was born in Parigam Chek, Kulgam. He is a graduate with Diploma in Numastics, Archaeology and Heritage. He is an archaeologist, writer, and a cultural historian. Mr. Iqbal Ahmad has published 12 reference books on Kashmir archaeology and heritage.)

Except valuable information, the book contains several local sources which underline the Greekness of ancient Macedonians.


Alexander is recorded to have invaded India from its north western side defeated King Porus at battle of Hydapes in 326 BC. While invading the Indian parts he has adopted a route which  historians believe comparatively laid near to the confines of Kashmir. Kashmir during the period is said to be under the rule of the chief of Abhisaras (Poonch and Nowshera). Alexander crossed the Indus near Ohind ( modern und Attock) in the spring of 326BC.
Numismatists claim to have found a coin type which depicts motif of two rajas  fighting one another, one of the rajas is shown  on the elephant and other on the horse back. These are identified as Raja Porus and Alexander respectively.

Abhisara the king of Poonch and Nowshehra who is believed to have held Kashmir  is recorded to have surrendered to the Alexander. Porus was made the in-charge of  the whole area which Alexander conquered . The area lay between the Beas and the Jhelum. King of Texila, Ambhi was given the territories west of Jhelum while Abhisaras authority was extended upto Kashmir. Abhisara’s  authority over Kashmir is not testified by any other source. However , Alexander’s numismatic finds in Kashmir justify  his campaign of the areas bordering the beautiful valley and the possibility of his visit of the land which since times immemorial was attractive  for its visitors.

Alexander before his return allowed his certain people which mostly consisted of Greek  garrisons to settle in the land he conquered. Several frontier tribes of Kashmir who live on its bordering areas of northern and western sides are believed to be the descendants of  Greece. Kalhana has named them Yavanas, but according to Iqbal  Ahmad those were the Greeks.

He writes that the term yavana is still in use  in rural Kashmiri which means  handsome or beautiful. When they have to refer a beautiful, they would  say yava. For them yava  is  one who has got a fairly complexion and had blue eyes which is the characteristic feature of Grecian people.   The famous tribes of Gupis  and Brokpas of Hunza and Ladakh Brokpas  are of this complexion. They are believed to be the descents from Greece.
Another  invasion noted  in  the local records of Kashmir is of Malechas  whom Iqbal Ahmad  identifies with Bactrian Greeks. There is mention of two famous Greek princes, one is Demetrius and the other  is Manender. Demetrius has been described as the king of the empire, which included Southern parts of Kashmir While as Menander  is recorded to  had held a discussions  with the Buddhist monk  at a place which was only  12 Yogenas from Kashmir which means that the place was only 12 yogenas from Srinager  because  in ancient times Srinagar was known by the name of Kashmir. Milndaphana records a discussion with Nagasena, the Buddhist saint, the place where the discussion was held can be identified as Harwan  which is about 19 km from Present Srinagar. The other Greek princes whose evidences have been found here included: Appollodotus, Menandar Strato, Zoiles, Hippostrates  Antialkadas, Helikels, Agathoceles, Pantaloon, Hermous and Antrinachur.

Iqbal Ahmad has attempted well and  studied most of the ancient coins and artifacts  which pertain to ancient Kashmir. He  has also studied the terracotta tiles found at Harwan and more recently at Kotbal in the Anantnag District; the motifs of dancing girls in few of these tiles according to his perception are the motifs of Grecian dancers. In his this book he has questioned the identification of the Martand  and Avantipura temples and identifies these monuments as the master work of ancient Greeks and Romans.

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Lefteris says:

“All roads lead to Rome”
“ολοι οι δρόμοι οδηγούν στην πόλι” πόλι=Κωνσταντινούπολι
When these ignorant Skopje’s will give up?
All the archaeological findings lead you to the truth that Macedonian’s are Greek and nothing else.
When the Skopje’s try to tell the rest of the world that they are Macedonian’s the only Nations that believes them are the English/Americans and most of them other Countries that are bribed by Gyorgy Schwartz=George Soros or they have the brilliance of George W. Bush……………..
Someone has to remind them that they did not existed in 326BC the Alexander years see people archaeologists publish books for the ignorant to read on i.e Kashmir archaeology and heritage, in Kashmir live Greeks from the Alexander era.
Now let’s talk about the Skopje’s, a communist region of the broken Yugoslavia, Stalin and Tito told them to name that region Macedonia, reason as it was told to “wet their feet” meant take over the Greek Province of Macedonia.
That will never happen so give up your propaganda and lies.